How an employer treats its employees during adverse weather conditions comes under the concept of "employment-at-will." This means that unless there is a specific law to protect employees or there is an employment contract providing otherwise, then an employer may treat its employees as it sees fit, and the employer can hire or discharge employees at the will of the employer for any reason or no reason at all.
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No. It is up to each individual employer to come up with its own adverse weather policy. There are no labor laws that require an employer to have such a policy in effect.
No. Even if a company has an official adverse weather plan, there are no labor laws stating that an employer must give its employees the opportunity to make up time not worked because of bad weather. It is up to each individual employer to allow its employees to use vacation time or not, to make up the time or not, or not pay employees who do not show up for work when the business is open.
Note: There is one exception to an employer not having to pay an employee who does not report to work. Salaried non-exempt employees who are paid a guaranteed salary for all hours worked in a workweek and then are paid an additional one-half time for all overtime hours and who perform any work during the workweek.
In most cases, no. An employer does not generally have to pay its employees for time lost when the business is closed due to adverse weather. However, there are two exceptions where the employer does have to pay for such lost time:
- Minimum wage/overtime pay exempt executive, administrative or professional employees who are directed by the employer not to come to work, but perform some work during the workweek.
- Salaried non-exempt employees who are paid a guaranteed salary for all hours worked in a workweek and then are paid an additional one-half time for all overtime hours and who perform any work during the workweek.
Note: An employer does not have to pay any employee who does not perform any work at all in a workweek for that workweek regardless of the situation or the employee's employment status.
If an employer does establish an adverse weather condition policy, then pursuant to N.C.G.S. §95-25.13(2), the employer must: "Make available to its employees, in writing or through a posted notice maintained in a place accessible to its employees, employment practices and policies with regard to promised wages." The employer must comply with its own adverse weather policy until such time as the employer changes its policy in writing, notifies its employees of such changes prior to the effective date, and does not take away retroactively any benefits already earned, pursuant to N.C.G.S. §95-25.13(3).
Yes. Since an employer does not have to have an adverse weather policy at all, the employer can simply inform its employees that they must report to work whenever the business is open regardless of the weather conditions or road conditions. With very few employment law exceptions (discussed below), an employer can make staying at work or reporting to work during adverse weather a condition of employment.
It does not matter if state officials have declared a state of emergency and are advising people to stay off of the roads. The decision to stay open or to close, for its employees to remain at work or leave early, or for its employees to report to work or not during adverse weather conditions, is entirely up to each individual employer to make on its own.