Does "Subpart Z - Toxic and Hazardous Substances" Apply to You?

Subpart Z provides requirements relating to employee exposures to air contaminants and the following health hazards: asbestos, coal tar pitch volatiles, 13 carcinogens (e.g., 4-Nitrobiphenyl, alpha-Naphthylamine, chloromethyl ether, 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (and its salts), bis-Chloromethyl ether, beta-Naphthylamine, Benzidine, 4-Aminodiphenyl, Ethyleneimine, beta-Propiolactone, 2-Acetylaminofluorene, 4-Dimethylaminoazo-benzene, and N-Nitrosodimethylamine), vinyl chloride, inorganic arsenic, beryllium, lead, chromium (VI), cadmium, benzene, coke oven emissions, cotton dust, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, methylinedianiline, respirable crystalline silica, ionizing radiation, ethylene oxide, 1,3-butadiene, ethylene chloride, formaldehyde, bloodborne pathogens, acrylonitrile, hazard communication, and chemical hazards in laboratories. It also provides requirements pertaining to employee medical and exposure records and DOT markings, placards, and labels.    

Do you have air contaminants? Do you have any of the 13 carcinogens? Do you have any of the health hazards listed above (i.e., asbestos, lead, cadmium, bloodborne pathogens)? Do you conduct medical surveillance or exposure monitoring (most health standards require them)? Do you have employees that may be exposed to any chemical under normal conditions or in foreseeable emergencies? Do you have employers engaged in laboratory use of hazardous chemicals? Do you receive containers (i.e., package, freight) that have DOT markings, placards or labels? 

If you answered yes to any of the questions above, click on the appropriate tabs below for more information.

Subpart Z - Toxic and Hazardous Substances

Tab/Accordion Items

If yes, you need to comply with the standard on air contaminants including the limits established in Table Z-1 - limits for air contaminants; Table Z-2; and Table Z-3 - mineral dusts. This standard provides explanations regarding ceiling values, time-weighted averages, and computation formulae. It also includes the use of engineering controls, administrative controls, and other protective measures to limit exposure levels and that equipment and/or technical measures be approved by a competent industrial hygienist or other technically qualified person. It also requires that the respiratory protection standard needs to be followed whenever respirators are used. 

Time weighted average (TWA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) is the employee's average airborne exposure in any 8-hour work shift of a 40-hour work week which shall not be exceeded.

Short term exposure limit (STEL) is a 15-minute TWA exposure that should not be exceeded at any time during a workday.

Ceiling limits (C) are limits which should never be exceeded, even instantaneously.

Additional information can be found on the safety and health topics pages for organic solventspersonal protective equipment, hazard communicationhierarchy of controls, chemical hazards and toxic substances and respiratory protection.

If yes, then you need to comply with the asbestos standard as it applies to all occupational exposures to asbestos in all general industries covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Act. It does not apply to construction work, ship repairing, shipbuilding and shipbreaking employments and related employments.

This standard provides the permissible exposure limit (PEL) and requirements pertaining to exposure monitoring, regulated areas, methods of compliance (i.e., engineering controls, work practice controls, written compliance program), respirator program (reference the respiratory protection standard), protective work clothing and equipment (reference the eye and face protection standard), hygiene facilities and practices (reference the sanitation standard), hazard communication program (reference the hazard communication standard), signs and labels, employee information and training, housekeeping, medical surveillance, recordkeeping (reference the standard on access to employee exposure and medical records), and mandatory and non-mandatory appendices (reference below).  It also provides the definitions such as:

Asbestos includes chrysotile, amosite, crocidolite, tremolite asbestos, anthophyllite asbestos, actinolite asbestos, and any of these minerals that have been chemically treated and/or altered.

Asbestos-containing material (ACM) means any material containing more than 1% asbestos.

PACM means presumed asbestos containing material.

The appendices for this standard are as follows: appendix A provides the procedure for analyzing air samples for asbestos and specifies quality control procedures that must be implemented by laboratories performing the analysis; appendix B provides detailed procedures for asbestos sampling and analysis; appendix D provides the medical questionnaires; appendix E provides the interpretation and classification of chest roentgenograms; appendix F provides work practices and engineering controls for automotive brake and clutch inspection, disassembly, repair and assembly; appendix G provides substance technical information for asbestos; appendix H provides medical surveillance guidelines for asbestos; appendix I provides the smoking cessation program information for asbestos; and appendix J pertains to polarized light microscopy of asbestos.

Related information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topics pages for asbestospersonal protective equipment, hazard communicationhierarchy of controls and respiratory protection

The 13 carcinogens include the following:

  1. 4-Nitrobiphenyl;
  2. alpha-Naphthylamine;
  3. methyl chloromethyl ether;
  4. 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (and its salts);
  5. bis-Chloromethyl ether;
  6. beta-Naphthylamine;
  7. Benzidine;
  8. 4-Aminodiphenyl;
  9. Ethyleneimine;
  10. beta-Propiolactone;
  11. 2-Acetylaminofluorene;
  12. 4-Dimethylaminoazo-benzene; and
  13. N-Nitrosodimethylamine.

Do you have one of the chemicals listed above? If yes, then you need to comply with the standard on 13 carcinogens. It applies to any area in which the 13 carcinogens are manufactured, processed, repackaged, released, handled, or stored, but does not apply to transshipment in sealed containers, except for the labeling requirements. 

The 13 carcinogens standard does not apply to the following:

  • Solid or liquid mixtures containing less than 0.1 percent by weight or volume of 4-Nitrobiphenyl; methyl chloromethyl ether; bis-chloromethyl ether; beta-Naphthylamine; benzidine or 4-Aminodiphenyl; and
  • Solid or liquid mixtures containing less than 1.0 percent by weight or volume of alpha-Naphthylamine; 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (and its salts); Ethyleneimine; beta-Propiolactone; 2-Acetylaminofluorene; 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene, or N-Nitrosodimethylamine.

This standard provides the requirements for regulated areas, respirator program (reference the respiratory protection standard), contamination control, medical surveillance, hygiene facilities and practices (reference the sanitation standard), hazard communication program (reference the hazard communication standard), signs and labels, training and education, and records (reference the standard on access to employee exposure and medical records). It also provides definitions such as:

Authorized employee means an employee whose duties require him to be in the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.

Regulated area means an area where entry and exit is restricted and controlled.

Additional related information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topic pages for personal protective equipment, eyewash stations and emergency showershazard communicationhierarchy of controls and respiratory protection.

If yes, then you need to comply with the standard on vinyl chloride as it provides the requirements for the control of employee exposure to vinyl chloride (chloroethene). It applies to the manufacture, reaction, packaging, repackaging, storage, handling or use of vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride, but does not apply to the handling or use of fabricated products made of polyvinyl chloride. The standard also applies to the transportation of vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride except to the extent that the Department of Transportation may regulate them. 

This standard provides the permissible exposure limit (PEL) along with requirements for exposure monitoring, regulated areas, methods of compliance (i.e., engineering controls, work practice controls, personal protective controls), respirator program (reference the respiratory protection standard), hazardous operations, emergency situations, training, medical surveillance, hazard communication program (reference the hazard communication standard), signs and labels, and records (reference the standard on access to employee exposure and medical records). Appendix A provides supplemental medical information for vinyl chloride.  This standard also provides definitions such as:

Vinyl chloride means vinyl chloride monomer.

Action level means a concentration of vinyl chloride of 0.5 ppm averaged over an 8-hour work day.

Hazardous operation means any operation, procedure, or activity where a release of either vinyl chloride liquid or gas might be expected as a consequence of the operation or because of an accident in the operation, which would result in an employee exposure in excess of the permissible exposure limit.

Related information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topic pages for personal protective equipmenthazard communicationeyewash stations and emergency showershierarchy of controls and respiratory protection.

If yes, then you need to comply with the inorganic arsenic standard as it applies to all occupational exposures to inorganic arsenic. This standard does not apply to employee exposures in agriculture or resulting from pesticide application, the treatment of wood with preservatives or the utilization of arsenically preserved wood.

This standard provides the permissible exposure limit along with requirements for exposure monitoring, regulated areas, methods of compliance (i.e., engineering controls, work practice controls, written compliance plan), respirator program (reference the respiratory protection standard), protective work clothing and equipment (reference the standard on eye and face protection), signs and labels, hygiene facilities and practices (reference the sanitation standard), hazard communication program (reference the hazard communication standard), medical surveillance, information and training, and recordkeeping (reference the standard on access to employee exposure and medical records).

The appendices for this standard are as follows: appendix A provides the inorganic arsenic substance information sheet; appendix B provides the substance technical guidelines; and appendix C provides medical surveillance guidelines. This standard also provides definitions such as:

Inorganic arsenic means copper aceto-arsenite and all inorganic compounds containing arsenic except arsine, measured as arsenic (As).

Action level means a concentration of inorganic arsenic of 5 micrograms per cubic meter of air (5 ug/m(3)) averaged over any eight (8) hour period. 

Related information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topic pages for personal protective equipment, hazard communicationhierarchy of controls and respiratory protection.

If yes, you need to comply with the standard on beryllium as it applies to occupational exposure to beryllium in all forms, compounds, and mixtures in general industry. It does not apply to:

  • This standard does not apply to articles (as defined below in the hazard communication standard) that contain beryllium and that the employer does not process.
  • This standard does not apply to materials containing less than 0.1% beryllium by weight where the employer has objective data demonstrating that employee exposure to beryllium will remain below the action level as an 8-hour TWA under any foreseeable conditions.

This standard provides the permissible exposure limit (PEL) and requirements for exposure assessments, exposure monitoring, regulated areas, methods of compliance (i.e., written exposure control plan, engineering controls, work practice controls), respirator program (reference the respiratory protection standard), protective work clothing and equipment (reference the standard on eye and face protection), signs and labels, hygiene areas and practices (reference the sanitation standard), hazard communication program (reference the hazard communication standard), housekeeping, medical surveillance, information and training, and recordkeeping (reference the standard on access to employee exposure and medical records).  Appendix A for this standard provides control strategies to minimize beryllium exposure. This standard also provides definitions such as: 

Action level means a concentration of airborne beryllium of 0.1 micrograms per cubic meter of air (μg/m3) calculated as an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA).

Emergency means any uncontrolled release of airborne beryllium.

High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter means a filter that is at least 99.97 percent efficient in removing particles 0.3 micrometers in diameter.

Additional information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topics pages for beryllium, personal protective equipment, hazard communicationhierarchy of controls and respiratory protection. In addition, occupational exposure to beryllium falls within the OSH Division health hazards special emphasis program.

If yes, then you need to comply with the lead standard as it applies to all occupational exposure to lead, except in the construction industry or to agricultural operations covered by the agriculture standards. This standard provides the permissible exposure limit (PEL) along with requirements for exposure monitoring, methods of compliance (i.e., engineering controls, work practice controls, written compliance program) respirator program (reference the respiratory protection standard), protective work clothing and equipment (reference the standard on eye and face protection), housekeeping, signs and labels, hygiene facilities and practices (reference the sanitation standard), hazard communication program (reference the hazard communication standard), medical removal protection, medical surveillance, information and training, and recordkeeping (reference the standard on access to employee exposure and medical records).

The appendices for lead are as follows: appendix A provides the substance data sheet for occupational exposure; appendix B provides the employee standard summary; and appendix C provides the medical surveillance guidelines. This standard also provides definitions including:

Action level means employee exposure, without regard to the use of respirators, to an airborne concentration of lead of 30 micrograms per cubic meter of air (30 ug/m3) averaged over an 8-hour period. 

Lead means metallic lead, all inorganic lead compounds, and organic lead soaps. Excluded from this definition are all other organic lead compounds.

Additional information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topics page for leadpersonal protective equipment, hazard communicationhierarchy of controls and respiratory protection. In addition, occupational exposure to lead falls within the OSH Division health hazards special emphasis program.

If yes, you need to comply with the chromium (VI) standard. It applies to occupational exposures to chromium (VI) in all forms and compounds in general industry, except: 

  • Exposures that occur in the application of pesticides regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency or another Federal government agency (e.g., the treatment of wood with preservatives);
  • Exposures to portland cement; or
  • Where the employer has objective data demonstrating that a material containing chromium or a specific process, operation, or activity involving chromium cannot release dusts, fumes, or mists of chromium (VI) in concentrations at or above 0.5 µg/m3 as an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) under any expected conditions of use.

This standard provides requirements pertaining to permissible exposure limits, exposure determination, regulated areas, methods of compliance (i.e., engineering controls, work practice controls), respirator program (reference the respiratory protection standard), housekeeping, protective work clothing and equipment (reference the standard on eye and face protection), hygiene facilities and practices (reference the sanitation standard), hazard communication program (reference the hazard communication standard), medical surveillance, employee information and training, and recordkeeping (reference the standard on access to employee exposure and medical records). Definitions for this standard include:

Action level means a concentration of airborne chromium (VI) of 2.5 micrograms per cubic meter of air (2.5 µg/m3) calculated as an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA). 

Chromium (VI) [hexavalent chromium or Cr(VI)] means chromium with a valence of positive six, in any form and in any compound. 

Emergency means any occurrence that results, or is likely to result, in an uncontrolled release of chromium (VI). If an incidental release of chromium (VI) can be controlled at the time of release by employees in the immediate release area, or by maintenance personnel, it is not an emergency. 

Employee exposure means the exposure to airborne chromium (VI) that would occur if the employee were not using a respirator. 

Additional information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topics pages for chromium VI, personal protective equipment, hazard communication, eyewash stations and emergency showershierarchy of controls and respiratory protection. In addition, occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium falls within the OSH Division health hazards special emphasis program.

If yes, then you need to comply with the cadmium standard. It applies to all occupational exposures to cadmium and cadmium compounds, in all forms, and in all industries covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Act, except the construction-related industries. This standard provides the permissible exposure limit (PEL) and the requirements for exposure monitoring, regulated areas, methods of compliance (i.e., engineering controls, work practice controls, written compliance program), respirator program (reference the respiratory protection standard), protective work clothing and equipment (reference the standard on eye and face protection), hygiene facilities and practices (reference the sanitation standard), hazard communication program (reference the hazard communication standard), housekeeping, signs and labels, medical surveillance, employee information and training, recordkeeping (reference the standard on access to employee exposure and medical records).

The appendices for cadmium are as follows: appendix A provides the substance safety data sheet; appendix B provides the substances technical guidelines for cadmium; appendix D pertaining to occupational health history interview with reference to cadmium exposure; appendix E provides cadmium in workplace atmospheres; and appendix F pertains to nonmandatory protocol for biological monitoring. This standard also provides definitions such as:

Action level (AL) is defined as an airborne concentration of cadmium of 2.5 micrograms per cubic meter of air (2.5 ug/m(3)), calculated as an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA). 

High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter means a filter capable of trapping and retaining at least 99.97 percent of mono-dispersed particles of 0.3 micrometers in diameter. 

Additional related information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topic pages for personal protective equipment, hazard communicationhierarchy of controls and respiratory protection.

 

If yes, then you need to comply with the standard on benzene as it applies to all occupational exposures to benzene. This standard does not apply to:

  • The storage, transportation, distribution, dispensing, sale or use of gasoline, motor fuels, or other fuels containing benzene subsequent to its final discharge from bulk wholesale storage facilities, except that operations where gasoline or motor fuels are dispensed for more than 4 hours per day in an indoor location are covered by this standard.
  • Loading and unloading operations at bulk wholesale storage facilities which use vapor control systems for all loading and unloading operations, except for the provisions of hazard communication as incorporated into this standard and the emergency provisions of this standard.
  • The storage, transportation, distribution or sale of benzene or liquid mixtures containing more than 0.1 percent benzene in intact containers or in transportation pipelines while sealed in such a manner as to contain benzene vapors or liquid, except for the provisions of hazard communication as incorporated into this section and the emergency provisions of this standard.
  • Containers and pipelines carrying mixtures with less than 0.1 percent benzene and natural gas processing plants processing gas with less than 0.1 percent benzene.
  • Work operations where the only exposure to benzene is from liquid mixtures containing 0.1 percent or less of benzene by volume or the vapors released from such liquids after September 12, 1989; except that tire building machine operators using solvents with more than 0.1 percent benzene are covered by this standard.
  • Oil and gas drilling, production and servicing operations.
  • Coke oven batteries.

This standard provides the permissible exposure limit (PEL) along with other requirements such as regulated areas, exposure monitoring, methods of compliance (i.e., engineering controls, work practice controls, written compliance program), respirator program (reference the respiratory protection standard), protective work clothing and equipment (reference the standard on eye and face protection), hygiene facilities and practices (reference the sanitation standard), hazard communication program (reference the hazard communication standard), medical surveillance, information and training, signs and labels, and recordkeeping (reference the standard on access to employee exposure and medical records). 

The appendices for benzene are as follows: appendix A provides the substance safety data sheet; appendix B provides the substance technical guidelines; appendix C provides the medical surveillance guidelines; and appendix D provides the sampling and analytical methods for benzene monitoring and measurement procedures. This standard also provides definitions including:

Action level means an airborne concentration of benzene of 0.5 ppm calculated as an 8-hour time-weighted average. 

Benzene (C6H6) (CAS Registry No. 71-43-2) means liquefied or gaseous benzene. It includes benzene contained in liquid mixtures and the benzene vapors released by these liquids. It does not include trace amounts of unreacted benzene contained in solid materials. 

Emergency means any occurrence such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment which may or does result in an unexpected significant release of benzene. 

Employee exposure means exposure to airborne benzene which would occur if the employee were not using respiratory protective equipment. 

Additional related information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topic pages for personal protective equipment, hazard communication, eyewash stations and emergency showershierarchy of controls and respiratory protection.

If yes, then you need to comply with the coke oven emissions standard as it applies to the control of employee exposure to coke oven emissions.  It does not apply to working conditions with regard to which other Federal agencies exercise statutory authority to prescribe or enforce standards affecting occupational safety and health. This standard provides the permissible exposure limit along with requirements for regulated areas, exposure monitoring and measurement, methods of compliance, respirator program (reference the respiratory protection standard), protective work clothing and equipment (reference the standard on eye and face protection), hygiene facilities and practices (reference the sanitation standard), hazard communication program (reference the hazard communication standard), medical surveillance, training, signs and labels, and recordkeeping (reference the standard on access to employee exposure and medical records). 

Appendix A for this standard provides the coke oven emissions substance information sheet and appendix B provides industrial hygiene and medical surveillance guidelines. This standard also provides definitions such as:

Coke oven means a retort in which coke is produced by the destructive distillation or carbonization of coal. 

Coke oven emissions means the benzene-soluble fraction of total particulate matter present during the destructive distillation or carbonization of coal for the production of coke. 

Emergency means any occurrence such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, which is likely to, or does, result in any massive release of coke oven emissions. 

Additional related information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topic pages for personal protective equipment, hazard communicationhierarchy of controls and respiratory protection.

If yes, then you need to comply with the bloodborne pathogens standard as it applies to all occupational exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials (OPIM). It provides requirements for a written exposure control plan, methods of compliance (i.e. engineering controls, work practice controls), personal protective equipment, housekeeping, regulated waste, labels and signs, laundry, HIV/HBV laboratories, hepatitis B vaccination, post-exposure evaluation and follow-up, information and training, recordkeeping (reference the standard on access to employee exposure and medical records), and sharps injury log. Appendix A provides the hepatitis B vaccine declination form. This standard also provides definitions including:

Occupational exposure means reasonably anticipated contact with skin, eye, mucous membrane, or parenteral (skin piercing) contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials that may result from the performance of an employee's duties. Occupational exposure includes primary or collateral job duties to provide first aid medical assistance. It does not include Good Samaritan acts of first aid and CPR.

Bloodborne Pathogens means pathogenic microorganisms that are present in human blood and can cause disease in humans. These pathogens include, but are not limited to, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). 

Universal Precautions is an approach to infection control. According to the concept of Universal Precautions, all human blood and certain human body fluids are treated as if known to be infectious for HIV, HBV, and other bloodborne pathogens. 

Other potentially infectious materials mean:

  • The following human body fluids: semen, vaginal secretions, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, peritoneal fluid, amniotic fluid, saliva in dental procedures, any body fluid that is visibly contaminated with blood, and all body fluids in situations where it is difficult or impossible to differentiate between body fluids;
  • Any unfixed tissue or organ (other than intact skin) from a human (living or dead); and
  • HIV-containing cell or tissue cultures, organ cultures, and HIV- or HBV-containing culture medium or other solutions; and blood, organs, or other tissues from experimental animals infected with HIV or HBV.  

Additional information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topics pages for bloodborne pathogens, recording and reportingpersonal protective equipment, eyewash stations and emergency showershierarchy of controls and medical services and first aid.

If yes, then you need to comply with the cotton dust standard. It applies to the control of employee exposure to cotton dust in all workplaces where employees engage in yarn manufacturing, engage in slashing and weaving operations, or work in waste houses for textile operations. It applies to the control of all employee's exposure to the cotton dust generated in the preparation of washed cotton from opening until the cotton is thoroughly wetted. It does not apply to:

  • The handling or processing of woven or knitted materials; to maritime operations; to harvesting or ginning of cotton; or to the construction industry.
  • Knitting, classing or warehousing operations except that employers with these operations, if requested by NIOSH, shall grant NIOSH access to their employees and workplaces for exposure monitoring and medical examinations for purposes of a health study to be performed by NIOSH on a sampling basis.

Exemptions from the standard:

  • Medical and dyed cotton. Medical grade (USP) cotton, cotton that has been scoured, bleached and dyed, and mercerized yarn.
  • Washed cotton. Cotton, after it has been washed by the processes described in the standard, is exempt from all or parts of the standard.
  • Cottonseed processing or waste processing operations. Only paragraphs on medical surveillance, recordkeeping - medical records, and appendices B (B-I, B-II, B-III , C and D apply in workplaces where employees exposed to cotton dust engage in cottonseed processing or waste processing operations.

This standard provides the permissible exposure limits (PEL) and action levels along with requirements pertaining to exposure monitoring and measurement, methods of compliance (i.e., engineering controls, work practice controls, written compliance program), respirator program (reference the respiratory protection standard), personal protective equipment, hazard communication program (reference the hazard communication standard), medical surveillance, education and training, signs and labels, and recordkeeping (reference the standard on access to employee exposure and medical records). 

The appendices for this standard covers the following: appendix A provides air sampling and analytical procedures for determining concentrations of cotton dust; appendix B-I provides the respiratory questionnaire; appendix B-II provides the respiratory questionnaire for non-textile workers for the cotton industry; appendix B-III provides the abbreviated respiratory questionnaire; appendix C provides the spirometry prediction tables for normal males and females; appendix D provides the pulmonary function standards for cotton dust standard; and appendix E provides the vertical elutriator equivalency protocol.  This standard also provides definitions such as: 

Cotton dust means dust present in the air during the handling or processing of cotton, which may contain a mixture of many substances including ground up plant matter, fiber, bacteria, fungi, soil, pesticides, non-cotton plant matter and other contaminants which may have accumulated with the cotton during the growing, harvesting and subsequent processing or storage periods. Any dust present during the handling and processing of cotton through the weaving or knitting of fabrics, and dust present in other operations or manufacturing processes using raw or waste cotton fibers or cotton fiber byproducts from textile mills are considered cotton dust within this definition. Lubricating oil mist associated with weaving operations is not considered cotton dust. 

Additional related information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topic pages for cotton dusthierarchy of controls, personal protective equipment and respiratory protection.

 

If yes, then you need to comply with the 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane standard as it applies to occupational exposure to 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP). It does not apply to:

  • Exposure to DBCP which results solely from the application and use of DBCP as a pesticide; or
  • The storage, transportation, distribution or sale of DBCP in intact containers sealed in such a manner as to prevent exposure to DBCP vapors or liquid, except for emergency requirements, employee information and training, and communication of hazards required by the standard.

It provides the permissible exposure limit and requirements pertaining to regulated areas, exposure monitoring, methods of compliance (i.e., engineering controls, work practice controls, written compliance program), emergency situations (i.e., written plan), respirator program (reference the respiratory protection standard), protective work clothing and equipment (reference the standard on eye and face protection), hygiene facilities and practices (reference the sanitation standard), housekeeping, hazard communication program (reference the hazard communication standard), medical surveillance, information and training, signs and labels, and recordkeeping (reference the standard on access to employee exposure and medical records).

The appendices for this standard cover the following: appendix A provides the substance safety data sheet for DBCP; appendix B provides the substance technical guidelines for DBCP; and appendix C provides the Medical surveillance guidelines for DBCP. This standard also provides definitions such as:

DBCP means 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 96-12-8, and includes all forms of DBCP. 

Emergency means any occurrence such as, but not limited to equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment which may, or does, result in an unexpected release of DBCP. 

Additional related information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topic pages for personal protective equipment, hazard communication, eyewash stations and emergency showersemergency action planshierarchy of controls and respiratory protection.

If yes, then you need to comply with the standard on acrylonitrile as it applies to all occupational exposures to acrylonitrile (AN). It does not apply to exposures which result solely from the processing, use, and handling of the following materials:

  • ABS resins, SAN resins, nitrile barrier resins, solid nitrile elastomers, and acrylic and modacrylic fibers, when these listed materials are in the form of finished polymers, and products fabricated from such finished polymers;
  • Materials made from and/or containing AN for which objective data is reasonably relied upon to demonstrate that the material is not capable of releasing AN in airborne concentrations in excess of 1 ppm as an eight (8)-hour time-weighted average, under the expected conditions of processing, use, and handling which will cause the greatest possible release; and
  • Solid materials made from and/or containing AN which will not be heated above 170 deg. F during handling, use, or processing.

Note: An employer relying upon exemption shall maintain records of the objective data supporting that exemption, and of the basis of the employer's reliance on the data.

This standard provides the permissible exposure limits and the requirements pertaining to exposure monitoring, medical surveillance, regulated areas, methods of compliance (i.e., engineering controls, work practice controls, written compliance program), respirator program (reference the respiratory protection standard), protective work clothing and equipment (reference the standard on eye and face protection and general requirements), hygiene facilities and practices (reference the sanitation standard), hazard communication program (reference the hazard communication standard), information and training, emergency situations (i.e., written plan), training, signs and labels, housekeeping, and recordkeeping (reference the standard on access to employee exposure and medical records). 

The appendices for acrylonitrile cover the following: appendix A provides the substance safety data sheet; appendix B provides the substance technical guidelines; appendix C provides the medical surveillance guidelines; and appendix D provides the sampling and analytical methods. This standard also provides definitions such as:

Acrylonitrile or AN means acrylonitrile monomer, chemical formula CH(2)=CHCN. 

Action level means a concentration of AN of 1 ppm as an eight (8)-hour time-weighted average. 

Additional related information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topic pages for personal protective equipment, hazard communicationhierarchy of controls and respiratory protection.

If yes, you need to comply with the ethylene oxide standard as it applies to all occupational exposures to ethylene oxide (EtO). It does not apply to:

  • The processing, use, or handling of products containing EtO where objective data are reasonably relied upon that demonstrate that the product is not capable of releasing EtO in airborne concentrations at or above the action level under the expected conditions of processing, use, or handling that will cause the greatest possible release.

It provides the permissible exposure limit and requirements pertaining to exposure monitoring, regulated areas, methods of compliance (i.e., engineering controls, work practice controls, written compliance program), respirator program (reference the respiratory protection standard), personal protective equipment (reference the standard on eye and face protection and general requirements), hygiene facilities and practices (reference the sanitation standard), hazard communication program (reference the hazard communication standard), information and training, emergency situations (reference emergency action plans and fire prevention plans), medical surveillance, training, signs and labels, and recordkeeping (reference the standard on access to employee exposure and medical records). 

The appendices for ethylene oxide cover the following: appendix A provides the substance safety data sheet; appendix B provides the substance technical guidelines; appendix C provides the medical surveillance guidelines; and appendix D provides the sampling and analytical methods for ethylene oxide. This standard also provides the definitions such as: 

Action level means a concentration of airborne EtO of 0.5 ppm calculated as an eight (8)-hour time-weighted average.

Emergency means any occurrence such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment that is likely to or does result in an unexpected significant release of EtO.

Employee exposure means exposure to airborne EtO which would occur if the employee were not using respiratory protective equipment.

Ethylene oxide or EtO means the three-membered ring organic compound with chemical formula C(2)H(4)O.

Additional related information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topic pages for personal protective equipment, hazard communication, emergency action plans, fire prevention planseyewash stations and emergency showershierarchy of controls and respiratory protection.

If yes, then you need to comply with the formaldehyde standard as it applies to all occupational exposures to formaldehyde (i.e., from formaldehyde gas, its solutions, and materials that release formaldehyde). It provides the permissible exposure limit and requirements pertaining to the permissible exposure limit, exposure monitoring, regulated areas, signs and labels, methods of compliance (i.e., engineering controls, work practice controls), respirator program (reference the respiratory protection standard), personal protective equipment (reference the standard on eye and face protection and general requirements), emergency situations, hygiene protection (reference the sanitation standard), housekeeping, hazard communication program (reference the hazard communication standard), information and training, emergency procedures, medical surveillance, training, signs and labels, and recordkeeping (reference the standard on access to employee exposure and medical records). 

The appendices for formaldehyde cover the following: appendix A provides the substance technical guidelines; appendix B provides the sampling strategy and analytical methods; appendix C pertains to medical surveillance, and appendix D provides the nonmandatory medical disease questionnaire. This standard also provides definitions such as:

Action level means a concentration of 0.5 part formaldehyde per million parts of air (0.5 ppm) calculated as an eight (8)-hour time-weighted average (TWA) concentration. 

Emergency is any occurrence, such as but not limited to equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment that results in an uncontrolled release of a significant amount of formaldehyde. 

Employee exposure means the exposure to airborne formaldehyde which would occur without corrections for protection provided by any respirator that is in use. 

Additional information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topic pages for formaldehyde, personal protective equipment, hazard communication, eyewash stations and emergency showershierarchy of controls and respiratory protection.

If yes, then you need to comply with the methylenedianiline standard as it applies to all occupational exposures to MDA. It does not apply to:

  • The processing, use, and handling of products containing MDA where initial monitoring indicates that the product is not capable of releasing MDA in excess of the action level under the expected conditions of processing, use, and handling which will cause the greatest possible release; and where no "dermal exposure to MDA" can occur.
  • The processing, use, and handling of products containing MDA where objective data are reasonably relied upon which demonstrate the product is not capable of releasing MDA under the expected conditions of processing, use, and handling which will cause the greatest possible release; and where no "dermal exposure to MDA" can occur.
  • The storage, transportation, distribution or sale of MDA in intact containers sealed in such a manner as to contain the MDA dusts, vapors, or liquids, except for the provisions of hazard communication and emergency situations.
  • The construction industry
  • To materials in any form which contain less than 0.1 percent MDA by weight or volume.
  • "Finished articles containing MDA."

Note: Where products containing MDA are exempted under this standard, the employer shall maintain records of the initial monitoring results or objective data supporting that exemption and the basis for the employer's reliance on the data, as provided in the recordkeeping provision of this standard.

This standard provides the permissible exposure limit (PEL) and requirements pertaining to emergency situations (reference the standards on emergency action plans and fire prevention plans), exposure monitoring, regulated areas, methods of compliance (i.e., written compliance program, engineering controls, work practices), respirator program (reference the respiratory protection standard), protective work clothing and equipment (reference the standard on eye and face protection), hygiene facilities and practices (reference the sanitation standard), hazard communication program (reference the hazard communication standard), information and training, signs and labels, housekeeping, medical surveillance, and recordkeeping (reference the standard on access to employee exposure and medical records). 

The appendices for MDA cover the following: appendix A provides substance data sheet; appendix B provides the substance technical guidelines, appendix C provides the medical surveillance guidelines; and appendix D provides the sampling and analytical methods for MDA monitoring and measurement procedures. This standard also provides definitions such as:

Action level means a concentration of airborne MDA of 5 ppb as an eight (8)-hour time-weighted average.

Employee exposure means exposure to MDA which would occur if the employee were not using respirators or protective work clothing and equipment.

Additional related information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topic pages for personal protective equipment, hazard communication, emergency action plans, fire prevention plans, eyewash stations and emergency showershierarchy of controls and respiratory protection.

If yes, then you need to comply with the 1,3-butadiene standard as it applies to all occupational exposures to 1,3-butadiene (BD). It does not apply to:

  • To the processing, use, or handling of products containing BD or to other work operations and streams in which BD is present where objective data are reasonably relied upon that demonstrate the work operation or the product or the group of products or operations to which it belongs may not reasonably be foreseen to release BD in airborne concentrations at or above the action level or in excess of the STEL under the expected conditions of processing, use, or handling that will cause the greatest possible release or in any plausible accident. Recordkeeping provisions still apply.
  • To work operations, products or streams where the only exposure to BD is from liquid mixtures containing 0.1% or less of BD by volume or the vapors released from such liquids, unless objective data become available that show that airborne concentrations generated by such mixtures can exceed the action level or STEL under reasonably predictable conditions of processing, use or handling that will cause the greatest possible release.
  • To the storage, transportation, distribution or sale of BD or liquid mixtures in intact containers or in transportation pipelines sealed in such a manner as to fully contain BD vapors or liquid. Labeling and emergency response requirements still apply. 

Note: Where products or processes containing BD are exempted under this standard, the employer shall maintain records of the objective data supporting that exemption and the basis for the employer's reliance on the data.

This standard provides the permissible exposure limit and the requirements pertaining to exposure monitoring, regulated areas, methods of compliance (i.e., engineering controls, work practice controls, written compliance plan), exposure goal program, respirator program (reference the respiratory protection standard), emergency situations (reference emergency action plans and fire prevention plans), medical screening and surveillance, hazard communication program (reference the hazard communication standard), and recordkeeping (reference the standard on access to employee exposure and medical records). 

The appendices for BD cover the following: appendix A provides the substance safety data sheet; appendix B provides the substance technical guidelines; appendix C provides the medical screening and surveillance; appendix D pertains to the sampling and analytical method for BD; and appendix F provides the medical questionnaire. This standard also provides definitions such as:

Action level means a concentration of airborne BD of 0.5 ppm calculated as an eight (8)-hour time-weighted average. 

Permissible Exposure Limits, PELs means either the 8-hour Time Weighted Average (8-hr TWA) exposure or the Short-Term Exposure Limit (STEL). 

Emergency situation means any occurrence such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment that may or does result in an uncontrolled significant release of BD. 

Additional related information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topic pages for personal protective equipment, hazard communication, emergency action plans, fire prevention plans, eyewash stations and emergency showershierarchy of controls and respiratory protection.

If yes, then you need to comply with the methylene chloride standard as it applies to all occupational exposures to methylene chloride (MC) in general industry, construction and shipyard employment. It provides the permissible exposure limit and requirements pertaining to exposure monitoring, methods of compliance (i.e., engineering controls, work practice controls, incidental leaks - reference HAZWOPER, paragraph (q) ), respirator program (reference the respiratory protection standard), protective work clothing and equipment (reference the standard on eye and face protection), hygiene facilities, hazard communication program (reference the hazard communication standard), information and training, labels, medical surveillance, and recordkeeping (reference the standard on access to employee exposure and medical records). 

The appendices for MC cover the following: appendix A provides the substance safety data sheet and technical guidelines; appendix B pertains to medical surveillance; and appendix C pertains to questions and answers for methylene chloride control in furniture stripping. This standard also provides definitions such as:

Action level means a concentration of airborne MC of 12.5 parts per million (ppm) calculated as an eight (8)-hour time-weighted average (TWA).  

Emergency means any occurrence, such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment, which results, or is likely to result in an uncontrolled release of MC. If an incidental release of MC can be controlled by employees such as maintenance personnel at the time of release and in accordance with the leak/spill provisions required by paragraph (f) of this section, it is not considered an emergency as defined by this standard. 

Employee exposure means exposure to airborne MC which occurs or would occur if the employee were not using respiratory protection. 

Additional information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topic pages for methylene chloridepersonal protective equipment, hazard communicationhazardous waste operations and emergency responseeyewash stations and emergency showershierarchy of controls and respiratory protection.

If yes, then you need to comply with the respirable crystalline silica standard as it applies to all occupational exposures to respirable crystalline silica, except:

  • Construction work; falls under respirable crystalline silica;
  • Agricultural operations;
  • Exposures that result from the processing of sorptive clays.
  • Where the employer has objective data demonstrating that employee exposure to respirable crystalline silica will remain below 25 micrograms per cubic meter of air (25 μg/m3) as an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) under any foreseeable conditions.

This standard provides the permissible exposure limit and requirements pertaining to exposure assessment, regulated areas, methods of compliance (i.e., written exposure control plan), respirator program (reference the respiratory protection standard), protective work clothing and equipment (reference the standard on eye and face protection), hygiene facilities, hazard communication program (reference the hazard communication standard), information and training, signs and labels, medical surveillance, and recordkeeping (reference the standard on access to employee exposure and medical records). 

The appendices for silica cover the following: appendix A provides the methods of sample analysis and appendix B pertains to the medical surveillance guidelines. This standard also provides the definitions such as:

Action level means a concentration of airborne respirable crystalline silica of 25 μg/m3, calculated as an 8-hour TWA.

Employee exposure means the exposure to airborne respirable crystalline silica that would occur if the employee were not using a respirator.

Respirable crystalline silica means quartz, cristobalite, and/or tridymite contained in airborne particles that are determined to be respirable by a sampling device designed to meet the characteristics for respirable-particlesize- selective samplers specified in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 7708:1995: Air Quality-Particle Size Fraction Definitions for Health-Related Sampling.

Additional related information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topic pages for silica, personal protective equipment, hazard communicationhierarchy of controls and respiratory protection. In addition, occupational exposure to silica falls within the OSH Division health hazards special emphasis program.

If yes, then you need to comply with the ionizing radiation standard as it applies to employee exposure to ionizing radiation. This standard provides the requirements pertaining to exposures of individuals in restricted areas, exposure to airborne radioactive material, precautionary procedures and personal monitoring, caution signs, labels, and signals, immediate evacuation warning signal, exceptions from posting requirements, exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment, instruction of personnel (posting), storage of radioactive materials, waste disposal, notification if incidents, records, disclosure to former employee of individual employee's record, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees - NRC contractors operating NRC plants and facilities - NRC Agreement State licensees or registrants. It also provides definitions such as: 

Radiation includes alpha rays, beta rays, gamma rays, X-rays, neutrons, high-speed electrons, high-speed protons, and other atomic particles; but such term does not include sound or radio waves, or visible light, or infrared or ultraviolet light. 

Restricted area means any area access to which is controlled by the employer for purposes of protection of individuals from exposure to radiation or radioactive materials.

Rad means a measure of the dose of any ionizing radiation to body tissues in terms of the energy absorbed per unit of mass of the tissue. One rad is the dose corresponding to the absorption of 100 ergs per gram of tissue (1 millirad (mrad)=0.001 rad).

Additional information can be found on our A-Z safety and health topics page for radiation, ionizing and non-ionizing.  

Note: Through a Memorandum of Understanding between the NC Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Division and the Radiation Protection Section (RPS) of the NC Department of Health and Human Services, Division of Health Service Regulation, RPS will be the lead agency for enforcement of worker safety for protection against ionizing radiation.  Accordingly, the NC OSH Division will be the primary enforcement agency for worker exposure to non-ionizing radiation.

If yes, then you need to comply with the hazard communication standard. It applies to any chemical which is known to be present in the workplace in such a manner that employees may be exposed under normal conditions of use or in a foreseeable emergency. 

This standard does not apply to:

  • Any hazardous waste as such term is defined by the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, as amended (42 U.S.C. 6901 et seq.), when subject to regulations issued under that Act by the Environmental Protection Agency;
  • Any hazardous substance as such term is defined by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) (42 U.S.C. 9601 et seq.) when the hazardous substance is the focus of remedial or removal action being conducted under CERCLA in accordance with Environmental Protection Agency regulations.
  • Tobacco or tobacco products;
  • Wood or wood products, including lumber which will not be processed, where the chemical manufacturer or importer can establish that the only hazard they pose to employees is the potential for flammability or combustibility (wood or wood products which have been treated with a hazardous chemical covered by this standard, and wood which may be subsequently sawed or cut, generating dust, are not exempted);
  • Articles; Note: Defined as a manufactured item other than a fluid or particle: (i) which is formed to a specific shape or design during manufacture; (ii) which has end use function(s) dependent in whole or in part upon its shape or design during end use; and (iii) which under normal conditions of use does not release more than very small quantities, e.g., minute or trace amounts of a hazardous chemical (as determined under paragraph (d) of this section), and does not pose a physical hazard or health risk to employees.
  • Food or alcoholic beverages which are sold, used, or prepared in a retail establishment (such as a grocery store, restaurant, or drinking place), and foods intended for personal consumption by employees while in the workplace;
  • Any drug, as that term is defined in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act when it is in solid, final form for direct administration to the patient (e.g., tablets or pills); drugs which are packaged by the chemical manufacturer for sale to consumers in a retail establishment (e.g., over-the-counter drugs); and drugs intended for personal consumption by employees while in the workplace (e.g., first aid supplies);
  • Cosmetics which are packaged for sale to consumers in a retail establishment, and cosmetics intended for personal consumption by employees while in the workplace;
  • Any consumer product or hazardous substance, as those terms are defined in the Consumer Product Safety Act and Federal Hazardous Substances Act, where the employer can show that it is used in the workplace for the purpose intended by the chemical manufacturer or importer of the product, and the use results in a duration and frequency of exposure which is not greater than the range of exposures that could reasonably be experienced by consumers when used for the purpose intended;
  • Nuisance particulates where the chemical manufacturer or importer can establish that they do not pose any physical or health hazard covered under this section;
  • Ionizing and nonionizing radiation; and
  • Biological hazards.

The standard does not require labeling of the following chemicals:

  • Any pesticide when subject to the labeling requirements of Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act and labeling regulations issued under that Act by the Environmental Protection Agency;
  • Any chemical substance or mixture that are subject to the labeling requirements the Toxic Substances Control Act and labeling regulations issued under that Act by the Environmental Protection Agency;
  • Any food, food additive, color additive, drug, cosmetic, or medical or veterinary device or product, including materials intended for use as ingredients in such products (e.g. flavors and fragrances), when they are subject to the labeling requirements under Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act  or the Virus-Serum-Toxin Act by either the Food and Drug Administration or the Department of Agriculture;
  • Any distilled spirits (beverage alcohols), wine, or malt beverage intended for nonindustrial use, when subject to the labeling requirements of Federal Alcohol Administration Act and labeling regulations issued under that Act by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives;
  • Any consumer product or hazardous substance when subject to a consumer product safety standard or labeling requirement of Consumer Product Safety Act and Federal Hazardous Substances Act or regulations issued under those Acts by the Consumer Product Safety Commission; and
  • Agricultural or vegetable seed treated with pesticides and labeled in accordance with the Federal Seed Act and the labeling regulations issued under that Act by the Department of Agriculture.

This standard applies to laboratories only as follows:

  • Employers shall ensure that labels on incoming containers of hazardous chemicals are not removed or defaced;
  • Employers shall maintain any safety data sheets that are received with incoming shipments of hazardous chemicals, and ensure that they are readily accessible during each workshift to laboratory employees when they are in their work areas;
  • Employers shall ensure that laboratory employees are provided information and training; and
  • Laboratory employers that ship hazardous chemicals are considered to be either a chemical manufacturer or a distributor under this rule, and thus must ensure that any containers of hazardous chemicals leaving the laboratory are correctly labeled and that a safety data sheet is provided to distributors and other employers per requirements of the standard.

This standard provides the requirements for a written hazard communication program, labels and other forms of warning, safety data sheets, information and training, trade secrets, hazard classification, chemical inventory, and non-routine tasks. The appendices for this standard cover the following: appendix A provides the health hazard criteria; appendix B provides the physical criteria; appendix C provides the allocation of label elements; appendix D provides the safety data sheets; appendix E provides definition of "trade secret"; and appendix F pertains to the guidance for hazard classifications re: carcinogenicity.    

This standard also provides definitions such as: 

Chemical means any substance, or mixture of substances.

Article means a manufactured item other than a fluid or particle: (i) which is formed to a specific shape or design during manufacture; (ii) which has end use function(s) dependent in whole or in part upon its shape or design during end use; and (iii) which under normal conditions of use does not release more than very small quantities, e.g., minute or trace amounts of a hazardous chemical, and does not pose a physical hazard or health risk to employees.

Hazard class means the nature of the physical or health hazards, e.g., flammable solid, carcinogen, oral acute toxicity.

Foreseeable emergency means any potential occurrence such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment which could result in an uncontrolled release of a hazardous chemical into the workplace. 

Label means an appropriate group of written, printed or graphic information elements concerning a hazardous chemical that is affixed to, printed on, or attached to the immediate container of a hazardous chemical, or to the outside packaging.

Safety data sheet (SDS) means written or printed material concerning a hazardous chemical that is prepared in accordance with the standard.

Additional information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topic pages for hazard communication, personal protective equipment, eyewash stations and emergency showersorganic solventsacids and basesflammable liquidshierarchy of controls and respiratory protection.

If yes, then you need to comply with the standard on occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories. It applies to all employers engaged in the laboratory use of hazardous chemicals as defined below. Where this standard applies, it shall supersede, for laboratories, the requirements of all other general industry health standards in subpart Z, except as follows:

  • For any OSHA health standard, only the requirement to limit employee exposure to the specific permissible exposure limit shall apply for laboratories, unless that particular standard states otherwise.
  • Where the action level (or in the absence of an action level, the permissible exposure limit) is routinely exceeded for an OSHA regulated substance with exposure monitoring and medical surveillance requirements of this standard shall apply.
  • Prohibition of eye and skin contact where specified by any OSHA health standard shall be observed.
  • Where the action level (or in the absence of an action level, the permissible exposure limit) is routinely exceeded for an OSHA regulated substance with exposure monitoring and medical surveillance requirements of this standard shall apply.

 This standard does not apply to:

  • Uses of hazardous chemicals which do not meet the definition of laboratory use, and in such cases, the employer shall comply with the relevant general industry standard in subpart Z, even if such use occurs in a laboratory.
  • Laboratory uses of hazardous chemicals which provide no potential for employee exposure. Examples of such conditions might include:
    • Procedures using chemically-impregnated test media such as Dip-and-Read tests where a reagent strip is dipped into the specimen to be tested and the results are interpreted by comparing the color reaction to a color chart supplied by the manufacturer of the test strip; and
    • Commercially prepared kits such as those used in performing pregnancy tests in which all of the reagents needed to conduct the test are contained in the kit

It provides the requirements pertaining to permissible exposure limits, exposure determinations, written chemical hygiene plan, chemical hygiene officer, information and training, medical consultation and examinations, hazard identification, respirator use (reference the respiratory protection standard), safety data sheets, and recordkeeping (reference the standard on access to employee exposure and medical records). Appendix A for this standard pertains to the National Research Council recommendations concerning chemical hygiene in laboratories. This standard also provides definitions such as:

Laboratory means a facility where the "laboratory use of hazardous chemicals" occurs. It is a workplace where relatively small quantities of hazardous chemicals are used on a non-production basis.

Laboratory use of hazardous chemicals means handling or use of such chemicals in which all of the following conditions are met:

  • Chemical manipulations are carried out on a "laboratory scale;"
  • Multiple chemical procedures or chemicals are used;
  • The procedures involved are not part of a production process, nor in any way simulate a production process; and 
  • "Protective laboratory practices and equipment" are available and in common use to minimize the potential for employee exposure to hazardous chemicals.

Laboratory scale means work with substances in which the containers used for reactions, transfers, and other handling of substances are designed to be easily and safely manipulated by one person. "Laboratory scale" excludes those workplaces whose function is to produce commercial quantities of materials.

Additional related information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topic pages for personal protective equipment, hazard communication, eyewash stations and emergency showershierarchy of controls and respiratory protection.

If yes, then you need to comply with the retention of DOT markings, placards and labels standard. It applies to the department of transportation markings, placards and labels for:

  • Packages of hazardous material received by the employer;
  • Freight containers;
  • Rail freight cars;
  • Motor vehicles;
  • Transport vehicles.

This standard provides the requirements pertaining to maintaining the visibility of markings, placards and labels, and maintaining labels in accordance with the hazard communication standard. 

Additional related information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topic page for hazard communication.

 

If yes, you need to comply with access to employee exposure and medical records standard. It applies to all employee exposure and medical records, and analyses thereof, of such employees, whether or not the records are mandated by specific occupational safety and health standards.

It is applicable to each general industry, maritime, and construction employer who makes, maintains, contracts for, or has access to employee exposure or medical records, or analyses thereof, pertaining to employees exposed to toxic substances or harmful physical agents.  This standard applies to all employee exposure and medical records, and analyses thereof, made or maintained in any manner, including on an in-house or contractual (e.g., fee-for-service) basis. 

This standard provides requirements for the preservation of records as follows: medical records for each employee shall be preserved and maintained for at least the duration of employment plus thirty (30) years and employee exposure records shall be preserved and maintained for at least thirty (30) years. It provides requirements pertaining to record access, trade secrets, employee information, and transfer of records. The appendices cover the following: appendix A provides a sample authorization letter for the release of employee medical record information to a designated representative and appendix B pertains to the availability of NIOSH registry of toxic effects of chemical substances (RTECS).

This standard also provides definitions such as:

Exposure or exposed means that an employee is subjected to a toxic substance or harmful physical agent in the course of employment through any route of entry (inhalation, ingestion, skin contact or absorption, etc.), and includes past exposure and potential (e.g., accidental or possible) exposure, but does not include situations where the employer can demonstrate that the toxic substance or harmful physical agent is not used, handled, stored, generated, or present in the workplace in any manner different from typical non-occupational situations.

Employee exposure record means a record containing any of the following kinds of information:

  • Environmental (workplace) monitoring or measuring of a toxic substance or harmful physical agent, including personal, area, grab, wipe, or other form of sampling, as well as related collection and analytical methodologies, calculations, and other background data relevant to interpretation of the results obtained;
  • Biological monitoring results which directly assess the absorption of a toxic substance or harmful physical agent by body systems (e.g., the level of a chemical in the blood, urine, breath, hair, fingernails, etc.) but not including results which assess the biological effect of a substance or agent or which assess an employee's use of alcohol or drugs;
  • (Material) safety data sheets indicating that the material may pose a hazard to human health; or
  • In the absence of the above, a chemical inventory or any other record which reveals where and when used and the identity (e.g., chemical, common, or trade name) of a toxic substance or harmful physical agent.

Employee medical record means a record concerning the health status of an employee which is made or maintained by a physician, nurse, or other health care personnel, or technician, including:

  • Medical and employment questionnaires or histories (including job description and occupational exposures),
  • The results of medical examinations (pre-employment, pre-assignment, periodic, or episodic) and laboratory tests (including chest and other X-ray examinations taken for the purpose of establishing a base-line or detecting occupational illnesses and all biological monitoring not defined as an "employee exposure record"),
  • Medical opinions, diagnoses, progress notes, and recommendations,
  • First aid records,
  • Descriptions of treatments and prescriptions, and
  • Employee medical complaints.

More related information can be found on our A-Z safety and health topics page for recording and reporting, medical services and first aid and hierarchy of controls.

If yes, then you need to comply with the standard on coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. It states "As used in 1910.1000 (Table Z-1), coal tar pitch volatiles include the fused polycyclic hydrocarbons which volatilize from the distillation residues of coal, petroleum (excluding asphalt), wood, and other organic matter. Asphalt (CAS 8052-42-4, and CAS 64742-93-4) is not covered under the "coal tar pitch volatiles" standard."