Does "Subpart CC - Cranes and Derricks in Construction" Apply to You?

Subpart CC provides the requirements for cranes and derricks used in construction. Do your employees use cranes or derricks? If yes, then you need to comply with this subpart. According to the scope, this subpart applies to power-operated equipment, when used in construction, that can hoist, lower and horizontally move a suspended load. Such equipment includes, but is not limited to: Articulating cranes (such as knuckle-boom cranes); crawler cranes; floating cranes; cranes on barges; locomotive cranes; mobile cranes (such as wheel-mounted, rough-terrain, all-terrain, commercial truck-mounted, and boom truck cranes); multi-purpose machines when configured to hoist and lower (by means of a winch or hook) and horizontally move a suspended load; industrial cranes (such as carry-deck cranes); dedicated pile drivers; service/mechanic trucks with a hoisting device; a crane on a monorail; tower cranes (such as a fixed jib, i.e., "hammerhead boom"), luffing boom and self-erecting); pedestal cranes; portal cranes; overhead and gantry cranes; straddle cranes; sideboom cranes; derricks; and variations of such equipment. Note: This standard applies to equipment listed above when used with attachments. Such attachments, whether crane-attached or suspended include, but are not limited to: Hooks, magnets, grapples, clamshell buckets, orange peel buckets, concrete buckets, drag lines, personnel platforms, augers or drills and pile driving equipment.

This subpart does not cover:

  • Machinery (listed above) while it has been converted or adapted for a non-hoisting/lifting use. Such conversions/adaptations include, but are not limited to, power shovels, excavators and concrete pumps.
  • Power shovels, excavators, wheel loaders, backhoes, loader backhoes, track loaders. This machinery is also excluded when used with chains, slings or other rigging to lift suspended loads.
  • Automotive wreckers and tow trucks when used to clear wrecks and haul vehicles.
  • Digger derricks when used for augering holes for poles carrying electric or telecommunication lines, placing and removing the poles, and for handling associated materials for installation on, or removal from, the poles, or when used for any other work covered by the subpart V on electric power transmission and distribution. Note: To be eligible for this exclusion, digger-derrick use in work subject to the electric power transmission and distribution subpart must comply with all of the provisions of that subpart, and digger-derrick use in construction work for telecommunication service must comply with telecommunications.
  • Machinery originally designed as vehicle-mounted aerial devices (for lifting personnel) and self-propelled elevating work platforms.
  • Telescopic/hydraulic gantry systems
  • Stacker cranes
  • Powered industrial trucks (forklifts), except when configured to hoist and lower (by means of a winch or hook) and horizontally move a suspended load.
  • Mechanic's truck with a hoisting device when used in activities related to equipment maintenance and repair.
  • Machinery that hoists by using a come-a-long or chainfall.
  • Dedicated drilling rigs
  • Gin poles when used for the erection of communication towers.
  • Tree trimming and tree removal work
  • Anchor handling or dredge-related operations with a vessel or barge using an affixed A-frame
  • Roustabouts
  • Helicopter cranes
  • Material delivery
    • Articulating/knuckle-boom truck cranes that deliver material to a construction site when used to transfer materials from the truck crane to the ground, without arranging the materials in a particular sequence for hoisting.
    • Articulating/knuckle-boom truck cranes that deliver material to a construction site when the crane is used to transfer building supply sheet goods or building supply packaged materials from the truck crane onto a structure, using a fork/cradle at the end of the boom, but only when the truck crane is equipped with a properly functioning automatic overload prevention device. Such sheet goods or packaged materials include, but are not limited to: Sheets of sheet rock, sheets of plywood, bags of cement, sheets or packages of roofing shingles, and rolls of roofing felt.

Note: The exclusion for material delivery does not apply when:

  • The articulating/knuckle-boom crane is used to hold, support or stabilize the material to facilitate a construction activity, such as holding material in place while it is attached to the structure;
  • The material being handled by the articulating/knuckle-boom crane is a prefabricated component. Such prefabricated components include, but are not limited to: Precast concrete members or panels, roof trusses (wooden, cold-formed metal, steel, or other material), prefabricated building sections such as, but not limited to: Floor panels, wall panels, roof panels, roof structures, or similar items;
  • The material being handled by the crane is a structural steel member (for example, steel joists, beams, columns, steel decking (bundled or unbundled) or a component of a systems-engineered metal building.

This subpart provides definitions for this subpart, and many of them will be provided with the applicable standards.

The standard on ground conditions provides requirements pertaining to ground conditions during assembly, having a controlling entity and no controlling entity for the project, and also states that this standard does not apply to cranes designed for use on railroad tracks when used on railroad tracks that are part of the general railroad system of transportation that is regulated pursuant to the Federal Railroad Administration under 49 CFR part 213 and that comply with applicable Federal Railroad Administration requirements. 

Controlling entity means an employer that is a prime contractor, general contractor, construction manager or any other legal entity which has the overall responsibility for the construction of the project--its planning, quality and completion.

Ground conditions means the ability of the ground to support the equipment (including slope, compaction, and firmness).

The standard on inspections covers inspections pertaining to modified equipment, repaired/adjusted equipment, post-assembly, and when there are manufacturer procedures. It also provides requirements for inspections to be conducted each shift, monthly, annual/comprehensive, after severe service, when equipment is not in regular use, and having documents available.

The safety devices standard requires safety devices on all equipment, and includes requirements pertaining to crane level indicators, boom stops, job stops, foot pedals having locks, rail clamps and rail stops, jacks having an integral holding device/check valve, horns, and requirement for proper operation of all devices. The operational aids standard states that devices listed in this standard ("listed operational aids") are required on all equipment and are in proper working order. It also provides the requirements pertaining to time periods for repair, temporary alternative measures, device substitutions, category I operational aids and alternative measures (i.e., boom hoist limiting device, luffing jib limiting device, anti two-blocking device), and category II operational aids and alternative measures (i.e., boom angle or radius indicator, jib angle indicator, boom length indicator, load weighing and similar devices). On equipment manufactured after 11/8/2011, the following devices are required: outrigger/stabilizer position (horizontal beam extension) sensor/monitor if the equipment has outriggers or stabilizers and hoist drum rotation indicator if the equipment has a hoist drum not visible from the operator's station. Note: Some of the operational aids are not required for digger derricks and articulating cranes. 

Operational aids are devices that assist the operator in the safe operation of the crane by providing information or automatically taking control of a crane function. These include, but are not limited to, the devices listed in the standard on operational aids.

The standard on operation provides the requirements pertaining to unavailable operation procedures (i.e., procedures developed by a qualified person, procedures developed by a registered professional engineer), accessibility of procedures, being attentive to operating equipment,  unattended equipment, tagging out equipment, storm warnings, adjustments and repairs, rated capacity, safety devices and operational aids, competent person requirements (i.e., re-spooling rope, addressing effects of weather), compliance with rated capacity,  traveling with loads, wheel-mounted equipment, equipment not used to drag or pull loads sideways, boom not contacting obstructions, rotational speeds, tag and restraint lines, brakes, counterweights/ballasts, swinging locomotive cranes, and operator obeying stop signals.

The standard on authority to stop operation requires that whenever there is a concern as to safety, the operator has the authority to stop and refuse to handle loads until a qualified person has determined that safety has been assured. 

The standard on signals - general requirements provides the requirements for when a signal person must be provided (i.e., point of operation is not in view of operator, direction of travel is obstructed, site specific safety concerns), along with types of signals to be used, hand signals to be used (reference appendix A - standard hand signals), new signals, suitability of signals, ability to transmit signals, stopping operations, one person providing signals to a crane/derrick at a time, signals provided from operators direction perspective, and communication with multiple cranes/derricks.

The fall protection standard provides the requirements pertaining to boom walkways, steps, handholds, ladders, grabrails, guardrails, railings, personal fall arrest and fall restraint systems (reference the standard on fall protection systems criteria and practices), anchorage criteria, tower cranes (this paragraph applies only to tower cranes), anchoring to the load line, and training (reference the standards on fall protection systems criteria and practices and training requirements).

Fall protection equipment means guardrail systems, safety net systems, personal fall arrest systems, positioning device systems or fall restraint systems.

The work area control standard provides the requirements pertaining to swing radius hazards, protecting employees in the hazard area and having a system for coordinating operations. The standard on keeping clear of load provides requirements for hoisting routes, fall zones (i.e., suspended loads; hooking, guiding and initial connection of loads), receiving loads, and tilt-up and tilt-down operations.  The standard on free fall and controlled load lowering provides the requirements regarding boom free fall prohibitions, preventing boom free fall, preventing uncontrolled retraction, and load line free fall. 

Free fall (of the load line) means that only the brake is used to regulate the descent of the load line (the drive mechanism is not used to drive the load down faster or retard its lowering).

Load refers to the object(s) being hoisted and/or the weight of the object(s); both uses refer to the object(s) and the load-attaching equipment, such as, the load block, ropes, slings, shackles, and any other ancillary attachment.

The standard on training requires employees to be trained on overhead power lines (reference the standard on power line safety (up to 350 kV)--equipment operations, paragraph (g) and power line safety (all voltages)--equipment operations closer than the Table A zone, paragraph (m)), and for employees that work with equipment, they must be trained on keeping clear of holes, of crush/pinch points and the hazards addressed in the standard on work area control. In addition, all signal persons must meet or be trained per the requirements of signal person qualifications, paragraph (c). Operators must be trained per operator training, certification, and evaluation, paragraph (a) and (b) and on practices involving friction equipment, equipment with booms (reference the standard on operation, paragraphs (f) and (j)), and on the manufacturer's emergency procedures for halting unintended equipment movement. All operators and other employees authorized to start/energize equipment or operate equipment controls (such as maintenance and repair employees) must be trained in the tag-out and start-up procedures (reference the standard on operation, paragraphs (f) and (g)). All competent persons and qualified persons must be trained per their respective roles. It also requires training administration including employees understanding the training, refresher training, and provided at no cost to the employee. 

Competent person means one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.

Qualified person means a person who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training and experience, successfully demonstrated the ability to solve/resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work, or the project.

Operator means a person who is operating the equipment.

The standard on severability states that should a court of competent jurisdiction hold any provision(s) of subpart CC to be invalid, such action shall not affect any other provision of the subpart. 

Do employees assemble or disassemble cranes or derricks? Are your cranes or derricks used near power lines? Do you have equipment operators? Do you have signal persons? Do you have maintenance or repair employees? Are you hoisting employees?  Are employees conducting multiple crane or derrick lifts? Are employees using equipment that have a manufacturer-rated hoisting/lifting capacity of more than 2,000 pounds? Do you/are you making equipment modifications or additions? Do employees use wire rope? Are employees operating tower cranes? Are employees operating derricks? Are employees operating floating cranes or derricks? Are employees operating land cranes or derricks on barges or other means of floatation? Are employees operating overhead or gantry cranes? Are employees operating dedicated pile drivers? Are employees operating sideboom cranes? Are employees using equipment with a rated hoisting/lifting capacity of 2,000 pounds or less? If you said yes to any of these questions, click on the tabs below to identify other standards within this subpart that may also apply.

Additional related information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topics pages for cranes and derricks and fall protection.

Subpart CC - Cranes and Derricks in Construction

Do employees assemble or disassemble cranes or derricks?

Do employees assemble or disassemble cranes or derricks?

If yes, then you need to comply with the requirements related to assembly and disassembly. These include assembly/disassembly--selection of manufacturer or employer procedures, assembly/disassembly--general requirements (applies to all assembly and disassembly operations), disassembly--additional requirements for dismantling of booms and jibs (applies to both the use of manufacturer procedures and employer procedures), and assembly/disassembly--employer procedures--general requirements.

The standard on assembly/disassembly--selection of manufacturer or employer procedures, specifically requires that the employer comply with all applicable manufacturer prohibitions and comply with either:

  • Manufacturer procedures applicable to assembly and disassembly, or
  • Employer procedures for assembly and disassembly. Employer procedures may be used only where the employer can demonstrate that the procedures used meet the requirements of assembly/disassembly--employer procedures--general requirementsNote: The employer must follow manufacturer procedures when an employer uses synthetic slings during assembly or disassembly rigging (reference assembly/disassembly--general requirements (applies to all assembly and disassembly operations), paragraph (r).

The standard on assembly/disassembly--general requirements (applies to all assembly and disassembly operations) provides the requirements pertaining to supervision by competent and qualified persons, knowledge of procedures by A/D director (assembly/disassembly), review of procedures, crew instructions, protecting assembly/disassembly crew members out of operator view, working under the boom, jib or other components, capacity limits, addressing specific hazards (i.e., site and ground bearing conditions, blocking material, proper location of blocking, center of gravity, boom and jib pick pints, snagging, struck by counterweights, wind speed and weather, boom hoist brake failure, assist crane loads, loss of backward stability), cantilevered boom sections, weight of components, components and configuration, shipping pins, pile driving, outriggers and stabilizers, and rigging.

Are you following employer procedures for assembly/disasembly versus using manufacturer procedures? If yes, then you need to comply with the assembly/disassembly--employer procedures--general requirements standard as it provides the requirements for when employer procedures are being used instead of the manufacturer procedures. It also provides the requirement for a qualified person to develop the procedures. 

Are employees dismantling booms or jibs? If yes, then you need to comply with the standard on disassembly--additional requirements for dismantling of booms and jibs (applies to both the use of manufacturer procedures and employer procedures). It provides the requirements on dismantling (including dismantling for changing the length of) booms and jibs, specifically, related to the removal of pins (i.e., not removing pins partly or completely). 

Are you doing assembly/disassembly around power lines (up to 350 kV)? If yes, then you need to comply with the standard on power line safety (up to 350 kV)--assembly and disassembly as it provides the requirements to follow one of the three options (i.e., deenergize and ground, 20 foot clearance, table A clearance) if any piece of equipment, load line or load could get within 20 feet of a power line during assembly/disassembly. It also provides requirements pertaining to preventing encroachment/electrocution, assembly/disassembly below power lines being prohibited, assembly/disassembly inside Table A clearance being prohibited, requesting voltage information, presuming power lines are energized and posting of electrocution warnings. 

Also reference appendix B, Assembly/Disassembly--Sample Procedures for Minimizing the Risk of Unintended Dangerous Boom Movement. 

Crane/derrick includes all equipment covered by this subpart.

Procedures include, but are not limited to: Instructions, diagrams, recommendations, warnings, specifications, protocols and limitations.

Unavailable procedures means procedures that are no longer available from the manufacturer, or have never been available, from the manufacturer.

Assembly/disassembly means the assembly and/or disassembly of equipment covered under this standard. With regard to tower cranes, "erecting and climbing" replaces the term "assembly," and "dismantling" replaces the term "disassembly." Regardless of whether the crane is initially erected to its full height or is climbed in stages, the process of increasing the height of the crane is an erection process.

A/D director (Assembly/Disassembly director) means an individual who meets this subpart's requirements for an A/D director, irrespective of the person's formal job title or whether the person is non-management or management personnel.

Additional related information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topics pages for cranes and derrickspersonal protective equipment and electrical safety.

Are your cranes or derricks used near power lines?

Are your cranes or derricks used near power lines?

If yes, then you need to comply with the standards related to power line safety. These include  power line safety (up to 350 kV)--equipment operations, power line safety (over 350 kV), power line safety (all voltages)--equipment operations closer than the Table A zone, power line safety (up to 350 kV)--assembly and disassembly and power line safety-while traveling under or near power lines with no load.

Are equipment operations being conducted around power lines up to 350 kV? If yes, then you need to comply with the standard on power line safety (up to 350 kV)--equipment operations. It requires hazard assessments and precautions inside the work zone, and requirements pertaining to preventing encroachment/electrocution, obtaining voltage information, operations below power lines, presuming power lines to be energized, working near transmitter/communication towers, training, and following manufacturer procedures for safety devices, operational aids, and other means for preventing power line contact or electrocution. It also contains Table A—Minimum Clearance Distances. 

Are equipment operations being conducted around power lines over 350 kV? If yes, then you need to comply with the standard on power line safety (over 350 kV). It requires compliance with  power line safety (up to 350 kV)--equipment operations and power line safety (up to 350 kV)--assembly and disassembly except: 

  • For power lines at or below 1000 kV, wherever the distance \"20 feet\" is specified, the distance "50 feet" must be substituted; and
  • For power lines over 1000 kV, the minimum clearance distance must be established by the utility owner/operator or registered professional engineer who is a qualified person with respect to electrical power transmission and distribution. 

Are equipment operations closer than what is required in Table A—Minimum Clearance Distances? To answer this question, reference the power line safety (up to 350 kV)--equipment operations standard, paragraph (h). If the answer to this question is yes, then you need to comply with the standard on power line safety (all voltages)--equipment operations closer than the Table A zone.  It provides requirements for when work must be conducted closer than the minimum approach distances provided in table A and that it is infeasible to deenergize and ground the power lines or relocate them. It includes minimum clearance distances, planning meeting to discuss procedures, documenting procedures from the meeting,  review of the procedures with employees, procedures must comply with the standard, training (reference power line safety (up to 350 kV)--equipment operations, paragraph (g)), and following manufacturer procedures for safety devices, operational aids, and other means for preventing power line contact or electrocution.

Are you doing assembly/disassembly of equipment around power lines (up to 350 kV)? If yes, then you need to comply with the standard on power line safety (up to 350 kV)--assembly and disassembly as it provides the requirements to follow one of the three options (i.e., deenergize and ground, 20 foot clearance, table A clearance) if any piece of equipment, load line or load could get within 20 feet of a power line during assembly/disassembly. It also provides requirements pertaining to preventing encroachment/electrocution, assembly/disassembly below power lines being prohibited, assembly/disassembly inside Table A clearance being prohibited, requesting voltage information, presuming power lines are energized and posting of electrocution warnings. 

Is equipment traveling under or near power lines with no load? If yes, then you need to comply with the standard on power line safety-while traveling under or near power lines with no load. This standard establishes procedures and criteria that must be met for equipment traveling under or near a power line on a construction site with no load. Note: Equipment traveling on a construction site with a load is governed by power line safety (up to 350 kV)--equipment operations, power line safety (over 350 kV), power line safety (all voltages)--equipment operations closer than the Table A zone, whichever is appropriate, and operation, paragraph (u). It also has requirements pertaining boom/mast being lowered, clearances being maintained (i.e., reference table T), effects of speed and terrain on equipment, having a dedicated spotter, along with additional precautions for traveling in poor visibility.    

Assembly/disassembly means the assembly and/or disassembly of equipment covered under this standard. With regard to tower cranes, "erecting and climbing" replaces the term "assembly," and "dismantling" replaces the term "disassembly." Regardless of whether the crane is initially erected to its full height or is climbed in stages, the process of increasing the height of the crane is an erection process.

Electrical contact occurs when a person, object, or equipment makes contact or comes in close proximity with an energized conductor or equipment that allows the passage of current.

Power lines means electric transmission and distribution lines.

Dedicated spotter (power lines) means to be considered a dedicated spotter, the requirements of § 1926.1428 (Signal person qualifications) must be met and his/her sole responsibility is to watch the separation between the power line and the equipment, load line and load (including rigging and lifting accessories), and ensure through communication with the operator that the applicable minimum approach distance is not breached.

Additional related information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topics pages for cranes and derrickspersonal protective equipment and electrical safety.

Do you have equipment operators?

Do you have equipment operators?

If yes, then you need to comply with the standard on operator qualification and certification. It requires that operators of equipment under this subpart be qualified or certified to operate the equipment. It includes requirements for operators-in-training, trainers, pre-qualification/certification training period, multiple lifts, language and literacy requirements, and certification criteria. Exception: Operator qualification or certification under this rule is not required for operators of derricks, sideboom cranes, or equipment with a maximum manufacturer-rated hoisting/lifting capacity of 2,000 pounds or less. 

Also reference appendix C, Operator Certification--Written Examination--Technical Knowledge Criteria.

Operator means a person who is operating the equipment.

Qualified person means a person who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training and experience, successfully demonstrated the ability to solve/resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work, or the project.

Sideboom crane means a track-type or wheel-type tractor having a boom mounted on the side of the tractor, used for lifting, lowering or transporting a load suspended on the load hook. The boom or hook can be lifted or lowered in a vertical direction only.

Additional related information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topics pages for cranes and derricks.

Do you have signal persons?

Do you have signal persons?

If yes, then you need to comply with the standard on signal person qualifications. It provides the qualification requirements for signal persons including:

The standard on signal person qualifications provides requirements pertaining to qualifications required for the signal person (i.e., option 1 - Third party qualified evaluator and option 2 - Employer's qualified evaluator), retraining, and qualification requirements.  The standard on signals - general requirements provides the requirements for when a signal person must be provided (i.e., point of operation is not in view of operator, direction of travel is obstructed, site specific safety concerns), along with types of signals to be used, hand signals to be used (reference appendix A - standard hand signals), new signals, suitability of signals, ability to transmit signals, stopping operations, one person providing signals to a crane/derrick at a time, signals provided from operators direction perspective, and communication with multiple cranes/derricks.

The standard on signals--radio, telephone or other electronic transmission of signals provides the requirements pertaining to testing the devices before beginning operations, using dedicated channels (two exceptions), and using a hands-free system for operator's reception of the signals. The standard on signals--voice signals--additional requirements provides that prior to beginning operations, a voice signal must be agreed upon by operator, signal person, and where applicable, lift director, and be effectively communicated in the language used. It also requires that each voice signal contain the following three elements in the following order: function (such as hoist, boom, etc.), direction; distance and/or speed; function, stop command.

The signals--hand signal chart standard states that the hand signal charts must be either posted on the equipment or conspicuously posted in the vicinity of the hoisting operations. 

Additional related information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topics pages for cranes and derricks.

Do you have maintenance employees or employees that repair equipment?

Do you have maintenance employees or employees that repair equipment?

If yes, then you need to comply with the standard on qualifications of maintenance & repair employees. It provides the qualifications for maintenance, inspection and repair personnel including:

  • Operate the equipment under the direct supervision of an operator who meets the requirements operator qualification and certification; or
  • Are familiar with the operation, limitations, characteristics and hazards associated with the type of equipment.
  • Maintenance and repair personnel must meet the definition of a qualified person with respect to the equipment and maintenance/repair tasks performed.

Qualified person means a person who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training and experience, successfully demonstrated the ability to solve/resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work, or the project.

Operator means a person who is operating the equipment.

Additional related information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topics pages for cranes and derricks.

Are employees being hoisted?

Are employees being hoisted?

If yes, then you need to comply with the standard on hoisting personnel. It states that the use of equipment to hoist employees is prohibited except where the employer demonstrates that the erection, use, and dismantling of conventional means of reaching the work area, such as a personnel hoist, ladder, stairway, aerial lift, elevating work platform, or scaffold, would be more hazardous, or is not possible because of the project's structural design or worksite conditions. This standard does not apply to work covered by subpart R - steel erection.

It includes requirements for use of personnel platforms, equipment criteria (i.e., capacity of equipment, devices, controlled load lowering), personnel platform criteria, personnel platform landing, attachment and rigging, proof testing, work practices, environmental conditions, fall protection, traveling, pre-lift meetings, hoisting personnel near power lines, hoisting personnel in drill shafts, hoisting personnel for driving operations, hoisting personnel for marine transfer, and hoisting personnel for storage-tank (steel or concrete), shaft and chimney operations.

Hoisting is the act of raising, lowering or otherwise moving a load in the air with equipment covered by this standard. As used in this standard, "hoisting" can be done by means other than wire rope/hoist drum equipment.

Hoist means a mechanical device for lifting and lowering loads by winding a line onto or off a drum.

Fall protection equipment means guardrail systems, safety net systems, personal fall arrest systems, positioning device systems or fall restraint systems.

Additional related information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topics pages for cranes and derricks and fall protection.

Are employees conducting multiple crane or derrick lifts?

Are employees conducting multiple crane or derrick lifts?

If yes, then you need to also comply with the standard on multiple-crane/derrick lifts--supplemental requirements. It provides for the development of a plan by a qualified person, meeting the requirements of the subpart and the plan being directed by a competent person or qualified person.

Competent person means one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.

Qualified person means a person who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training and experience, successfully demonstrated the ability to solve/resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work, or the project.

Additional related information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topics pages for cranes and derricks.

Are employees using equipment with a manufacturer-rated hoisting/lifting capacity of more than 2,000 pounds?

Are employees using equipment with a manufacturer-rated hoisting/lifting capacity of more than 2,000 pounds?

If yes, then you need to comply with the standard on design, construction and testing. It provides the requirements for equipment that has a manufacturer-rated hoisting/lifting capacity of more than 2,000 pounds. The standard references consensus standards incorporated by reference. It also provides requirements pertaining to rated capacity, load hooks, hook and ball assemblies and load blocks, latching hooks, posted warnings, fire extinguishers, cabs, guarding components, hydraulic and pneumatic lines, exhaust fumes, friction mechanisms, hydraulic load hoists, and equipment modifications. 

Hoist means a mechanical device for lifting and lowering loads by winding a line onto or off a drum.

Load refers to the object(s) being hoisted and/or the weight of the object(s); both uses refer to the object(s) and the load-attaching equipment, such as, the load block, ropes, slings, shackles, and any other ancillary attachment.

Load moment (or rated capacity) indicator means a system which aids the equipment operator by sensing (directly or indirectly) the overturning moment on the equipment, i.e., load multiplied by radius. It compares this lifting condition to the equipment's rated capacity, and indicates to the operator the percentage of capacity at which the equipment is working. Lights, bells, or buzzers may be incorporated as a warning of an approaching overload condition.

Load moment (or rated capacity) limiter means a system which aids the equipment operator by sensing (directly or indirectly) the overturning moment on the equipment, i.e., load multiplied by radius. It compares this lifting condition to the equipment's rated capacity, and when the rated capacity is reached, it shuts off power to those equipment functions which can increase the severity of loading on the equipment, e.g., hoisting, telescoping out, or luffing out. Typically, those functions which decrease the severity of loading on the equipment remain operational, e.g., lowering, telescoping in, or luffing in.

Additional related information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topics pages for cranes and derricks. The NCDOL Library is available for assistance regarding access to consensus standards (i.e., ANSI, ASME, NFPA, IEEE). 

Are you making equipment modifications or additions?

Are you making equipment modifications or additions?

If yes, then you need to comply with the standard on equipment modifications. It provides the requirements for obtaining manufacturer approval for modifications and/or additions, when the manufacturer is unavailable, multiple manufacturers, and manufacturer refusals. Note: These requirements do not apply to modifications made or approved by the U.S. military.

Additional related information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topics pages for cranes and derricks.

Are employees using wire rope?

Are employees using wire rope?

If yes, then you need to comply with the standards on wire rope - inspection and wire rope--selection and installation criteria. The standard on wire rope - inspection requires that a competent person must begin a visual inspection prior to each shift the equipment is used, which must be completed before or during that shift and that the inspection consist of observation of wire ropes (running and standing) that are likely to be in use during the shift for apparent deficiencies (i.e., category I, II, and III deficiencies, critical review items, removal from service). It also has requirements for monthly inspections, annual/comprehensive inspections, use of rope lubricants, and documentation. 

The standard on wire rope--selection and installation criteria provides that the original equipment wire rope and replacement wire rope be selected and installed in accordance with the requirements of this standard and that the selection of replacement wire rope be in accordance with the recommendations of the wire rope manufacturer, the equipment manufacturer, or a qualified person. It also provides wire rope design criteria, wire rope compatibility, boom hoist reeving, rotation resistant ropes, use of wire rope clips, socketing, and use of seizings. 

Competent person means one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.

Wire rope means a flexible rope constructed by laying steel wires into various patterns of multi-wired strands around a core system to produce a helically wound rope.

Additional related information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topics pages for cranes and derricks.

Are employees operating tower cranes?

Are employees operating tower cranes?

If yes, then you need to comply with the tower cranes standard. It includes supplemental requirements for erecting, climbing, dismantling, signage, safety devices, operational aids, and inspections.

Tower crane is a type of lifting structure which utilizes a vertical mast or tower to support a working boom (jib) in an elevated position. Loads are suspended from the working boom. While the working boom may be of the fixed type (horizontal or angled) or have luffing capability, it can always rotate to swing loads, either by rotating on the top of the tower (top slewing) or by the rotation of the tower (bottom slewing). The tower base may be fixed in one location or ballasted and moveable between locations. Mobile cranes that are configured with luffing jib and/or tower attachments are not considered tower cranes under this subpart.

Operational aids are devices that assist the operator in the safe operation of the crane by providing information or automatically taking control of a crane function. These include, but are not limited to, the devices listed in the standard on operational aids.

Luffing jib limiting device is similar to a boom hoist limiting device, except that it limits the movement of the luffing jib.

Mobile crane means a lifting device incorporating a cable suspended latticed boom or hydraulic telescopic boom designed to be moved between operating locations by transport over the road.

Additional related information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topics pages for cranes and derricks.

Are employees operating derricks?

Are employees operating derricks?

If yes, then you need to comply with the standard on derricks. It includes supplemental requirements for derricks, whether temporarily or permanently mounted. The standard provides operation procedures, general construction requirements, anchoring and guying, swingers and hoists, operational aids, post-assembly approval and testing, use of winch heads, securing the boom, and inspections.

A derrick is powered equipment consisting of a mast or equivalent member that is held at or near the end by guys or braces, with or without a boom, and its hoisting mechanism. The mast/equivalent member and/or the load is moved by the hoisting mechanism (typically base-mounted) and operating ropes. Derricks include: A-frame, basket, breast, Chicago boom, gin pole (except gin poles used for erection of communication towers), guy, shearleg, stiffleg, and variations of such equipment.

Additional related information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topics pages for cranes and derricks.

Are employees operating floating cranes or derricks?

Are employees operating floating cranes or derricks?

If yes, then you need to comply with the standard on floating cranes/derricks and land cranes/derricks on barges. This standard provides supplemental requirements for floating cranes/derricks, unless specified otherwise. It provides general requirements for work area control, additional safety devices, operational aids, accessibility of procedures applicable to equipment operation, inspections, manufacturer's specifications and limitations,.and load charts.

Floating cranes/derricks means equipment designed by the manufacturer (or employer) for marine use by permanent attachment to a barge, pontoons, vessel or other means of flotation.

Procedures include, but are not limited to: Instructions, diagrams, recommendations, warnings, specifications, protocols and limitations.

Operational aids are devices that assist the operator in the safe operation of the crane by providing information or automatically taking control of a crane function. These include, but are not limited to, the devices listed in the standard on operational aids.

Additional related information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topics pages for cranes and derricks.

Are employees operating land cranes or derricks on barges or other means of floatation?

Are employees operating land cranes or derricks on barges or other means of floatation?

If yes, then you need to comply with the standard on floating cranes/derricks and land cranes/derricks on barges. This standard provides supplemental requirements for land cranes/derricks on barges, pontoons, vessels or other means of flotation (i.e., vessel/flotation device), unless specified otherwise. These requirements do not apply when using jacked barges when the jacks are deployed to the river, lake, or sea bed and the barge is fully supported by the jacks.

It provides general requirements such as work area control, additional safety devices, operational aids, accessibility of procedures applicable to equipment operation, inspections, manufacturer's specifications and limitations, and rated capacity for equipment.

Floating cranes/derricks means equipment designed by the manufacturer (or employer) for marine use by permanent attachment to a barge, pontoons, vessel or other means of flotation.

Procedures include, but are not limited to: Instructions, diagrams, recommendations, warnings, specifications, protocols and limitations.

Operational aids are devices that assist the operator in the safe operation of the crane by providing information or automatically taking control of a crane function. These include, but are not limited to, the devices listed in the standard on operational aids.

Additional related information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topics pages for cranes and derricks.

Are employees operating overhead or gantry cranes?

Are employees operating overhead or gantry cranes?

If yes, then you need to comply with the standard on overhead and gantry cranes. This standard applies to the following equipment when used in construction and not permanently installed in a facility: Overhead and gantry cranes, overhead/bridge cranes, semigantry, cantilever gantry, wall cranes, storage bridge cranes, launching gantry cranes, and similar equipment having the same fundamental characteristics, irrespective of whether it travels on tracks, wheels, or other means. It states that the following standards in subpart CC apply to the overhead and gantry cranes listed above:

In addition, the following paragraphs of the general industry standard for overhead and gantry cranes applies: (b)(5), (b)(6), (b)(7); (e)(1), (e)(3), (e)(5), (e)(6); (f)(1), (f)(4); (g); (h)(1), (h)(3); (k); and (n) along with specific sections of the ASME B30.2-2005 consensus standard incorporated by reference. It also states that the definitions in overhead and gantry cranes, paragraph (a) apply except for "hoist" and "load."

For those words, the subpart CC definitions apply:

Hoist means a mechanical device for lifting and lowering loads by winding a line onto or off a drum.

Load refers to the object(s) being hoisted and/or the weight of the object(s); both uses refer to the object(s) and the load-attaching equipment, such as, the load block, ropes, slings, shackles, and any other ancillary attachment.

Overhead and gantry cranes includes overhead/bridge cranes, semigantry, cantilever gantry, wall cranes, storage bridge cranes, launching gantry cranes, and similar equipment, irrespective of whether it travels on tracks, wheels, or other means.

Note: For permanently installed overhead and gantry cranes, the requirements of the general industry standard for overhead and gantry cranes, except for paragraph (b)(1), and not the requirements of this subpart CC, apply to the following equipment when used in construction and permanently installed in a facility: overhead and gantry cranes, including semigantry, cantilever gantry, wall cranes, storage bridge cranes, and others having the same fundamental characteristics.

Additional related information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topics pages for cranes and derricks and overhead and gantry cranes. The NCDOL Library is available for assistance regarding access to consensus standards (i.e., ANSI, ASME, NFPA, IEEE). 

Are employees operating dedicated pile drivers?

Are employees operating dedicated pile drivers?

If yes, then you need to comply with the standard on dedicated pile drivers. The standard states that all the requirements of subpart CC apply to dedicated pile drivers, except:

  • Standard on operational aids, paragraph (d)(3) - Anti two-blocking device does not apply.
  • Standard on operational aids, paragraph (e)(4) - Load weighing and similar devices applies only to dedicated pile drivers manufactured after November 8, 2011.
  • For equipment manufactured on or after September 19, 2001, the following sections of ASME B30.2-2005 - see incorporated by reference apply: 2-1.3.1; 2-1.3.2; 2-1.4.1; 2-1.6; 2-1.7.2; 2-1.8.2; 2-1.9.1; 2-1.9.2; 2-1.11; 2-1.12.2; 2-1.13.7; 2-1.14.2; 2-1.14.3; 2-1.14.5; 2-1.15.; 2-2.2.2; 2-3.2.1.1. In addition, 2-3.5 applies, except in 2-3.5.1(b), "The control of hazardous energy (general industry)" is substituted for "ANSI Z244.1."

Dedicated pile-driver is a machine that is designed to function exclusively as a pile-driver. These machines typically have the ability to both hoist the material that will be pile-driven and to pile-drive that material.

Additional related information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topics pages for cranes and derricks and lockout/tagout. The NCDOL Library is available for assistance regarding access to consensus standards (i.e., ANSI, ASME, NFPA, IEEE). 

Are employees operating sideboom cranes?

Are employees operating sideboom cranes?

If yes, then you need to comply with the standard on sideboom cranes. It states that the requirements of subpart CC apply to sideboom cranes, except ground conditions, safety devices, operational aids, and operator qualification and certification. It also states that free fall and controlled load lowering applies, except equipment manufactured prior to October 31, 1984 [(a)(2)(i)]. Sideboom cranes in which the boom is designed to free fall (live boom) are permitted only if manufactured prior to November 8, 2010 and that sideboom cranes mounted on wheel or crawler tractors must meet all of the following requirements of ASME B30.14-2004 (incorporated by reference).

Sideboom crane means a track-type or wheel-type tractor having a boom mounted on the side of the tractor, used for lifting, lowering or transporting a load suspended on the load hook. The boom or hook can be lifted or lowered in a vertical direction only.

Free fall (of the load line) means that only the brake is used to regulate the descent of the load line (the drive mechanism is not used to drive the load down faster or retard its lowering).

Additional related information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topics page for cranes and derricks. The NCDOL Library is available for assistance regarding access to consensus standards (i.e., ANSI, ASME, NFPA, IEEE). 

Are employees using equipment with a rated hoisting/lifting capacity of 2,000 pounds or less?

Are employees using equipment with a rated hoisting/lifting capacity of 2,000 pounds or less?

If yes, then you need to comply with the standard on equipment with a rated hoisting/lifting capacity of 2,000 pounds or less. It requires that the employer using this equipment must comply with the following requirements:

It provides requirements for employers using equipment with a maximum rated hoisting/lifting capacity of 2,000 pounds or less. These include requirements pertaining to assembly and disassembly, operation procedures, safety devices and operational aids, operator qualifications, signal person qualifications, inspections, hoisting personnel and design.

Hoist means a mechanical device for lifting and lowering loads by winding a line onto or off a drum.

Hoisting is the act of raising, lowering or otherwise moving a load in the air with equipment covered by this standard. As used in this standard, "hoisting" can be done by means other than wire rope/hoist drum equipment.

Procedures include, but are not limited to: Instructions, diagrams, recommendations, warnings, specifications, protocols and limitations.

Operational aids are devices that assist the operator in the safe operation of the crane by providing information or automatically taking control of a crane function. These include, but are not limited to, the devices listed in the standard on operational aids.

Additional related information can be found on the A-Z safety and health topics page for cranes and derricks. The NCDOL Library is available for assistance regarding access to consensus standards (i.e., ANSI, ASME, NFPA, IEEE).