Asbestos is a group of naturally occurring minerals that are resistant to heat and corrosion. Asbestos has been used in the manufacture of insulation, fire-proofing materials and building materials (e.g., floor and ceiling tiles, transite wall panels and wall board joint compound) and friction materials (e.g., automotive brake pads and clutches).

There are six naturally occurring mineral forms of asbestos which are sorted into two major types.

  • Amphibole asbestos group contains: amosite ("brown" or "grey" asbestos), crocidolite ("blue" asbestos), tremolite, anthophyllite and actinolite.
  • Serpentine asbestos group contains one type: chrysotile ("white" asbestos).

95% of the asbestos that was used in manufacturing in the United States was of the chrysotile type.


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What are the health hazards of asbestos?

Occupational exposure to asbestos can result in asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma. Asbestosis is a chronic inflammation and scarring of the lungs caused by inhaling asbestos fibers. Mesothelioma is an aggressive form of cancer that develops in the lining of the lungs, abdomen or heart.

The OSH Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for asbestos is 0.1 fibers per cubic centimeter (0.1 f/cc) of air as an 8 hour time-weighted average (TWA). In addition, the employer must ensure that during any 30 minute sampling period no employee is exposed above 1.0 f/cc as averaged concentration. This additional exposure limit is referred to as the Excursion Limit (EL).

What are the physical hazards of asbestos?

Because asbestos is chemically inert and exists as a mineral, there are no known physical hazards associated with it use.

What can I do to protect myself?

Employees working with asbestos-containing materials (ACM) or materials presumed to contain asbestos must be trained by their employer about the hazards of asbestos and how they might become exposed to airborne asbestos fibers through their job duties. They must be provided with the necessary personal protective equipment (e.g., Tyvek suits, respirators) and engineering controls (e.g., exhaust ventilation through HEPA filtration) to maintain exposure to or below the PEL. Whenever respiratory protection is required, the employer must also implement a respiratory protection program that meets the requirements of the respiratory protection standard, 29 CFR 1910.134.  In addition, all construction work that involves asbestos-containing material or presumed asbestos-containing material must be supervised by a competent person who has received asbestos training in addition to that required for asbestos-workers.

What resources are available to employers?

Training and Outreach Services

The presentations on hazard communication, respiratory protection and personal protective equipment are available to assist employers in training their staff. Each of these presentations should be modified to address site-specific conditions and hazards. Other example presentations are available along with pre-recorded webinars which can be accessed at any time. 

In addition, the education, training and technical assistance bureau provides free online safety and health training and outreach services (i.e., speaker's bureau requests, safety booths) upon request. 

Lastly, the NCDOL Library offers free safety and health videos (including streaming video services) and related research assistance on consensus standards (i.e., ANSI, NFPA, NEC).

Safety and Health Programs

A hazard communication program, hazardous chemical programrespiratory protection program, and personal protective equipment hazard assessment are available for employers to download and adapt to their specific conditions. Other example safety and health programs are available for employers to download and adapt to their specific conditions. 

Safety and Health Topics

Additional resources can be found on the safety and health topic pages for respiratory protection, hazard communication, hierarchy of controls, chemical hazards and toxic substances, competent person and personal protective equipment

Consultation Services

The consultative services bureau provides free and confidential onsite consultation regarding worksite safety and health hazards.

What standards apply?

OSH has adopted the following standards which are applicable to asbestos in North Carolina. Note: Please also check the standards information and activity webpage to see if there has been any recent or upcoming regulatory activity on this topic. 

In addition, the following standards may also apply to employee exposure to asbestos:

  • 29 CFR 1910.132 - personal protective equipment, general requirements - general industry
  • 29 CFR 1910.134 - respiratory protection - general industry, maritime and construction
  • 29 CFR 1910.1020 - access to employee exposure and medical records - general industry, maritime and construction
  • 29 CFR 1910.1200 - hazard communication - general industry, maritime and construction

Other Applicable Standards

The Which OSHA Standards Apply webpage can also help identify other standards that may be applicable to your worksite.

Where can I learn more?

Industry Guides

Compliance Documents

Technical Assistance

Inquiries about workplace safety and health requirements can be submitted to Ask OSH through the online form, by email to, or by phone at 919-707-7876.