Amputations An amputation is defined in the reporting and recording standards as “the traumatic loss of a limb or other external body part. Amputations include a part, such as a limb or appendage, that has been severed, cut off, amputated (either completely or partially); fingertip amputations with or without bone loss; medical amputations resulting from irreparable damage; amputations of body parts that have since been reattached.” This definition does not include avulsions (injuries due to tearing away of soft tissue, e.g., eyelids), enucleations (removal of one or both eyes), deglovings (tearing away of skin from the underlying tissue), scalpings, severed ears, or broken or chipped teeth. [See 29 CFR 1904.39(b)(11)] Amputations Hazard Overview Solutions Regulations Learn More Hazard Overview What types of machine components present amputation hazards? Point of operation where a machine performs work on material. Power-transmission apparatus such as flywheels, pulleys, belts, chains, spindles and gears. Other moving components that move during machine operation. What kinds of mechanical motion can cause amputations? In-running nip points (“pinch points”) where either two parts move together or at least one moves in a rotary or circular fashion is one kind of mechanical motion that can lead to the loss of a finger or worse. Other common types of mechanical motion that can result in amputations are: Rotating - circular movement of parts. Reciprocating - back-and-forth or up-and-down motion. Transversing - movement in a straight, continuous line. Cutting - including boring and drilling actions. Punching - movement of a slide to stamp or blank material. Shearing - movement of a powered slide or knife during metal trimming or shearing. Bending - movement of a powered slide to draw or form metal or other materials. Solutions What can I do to protect myself? Employees can take several steps towards protecting themselves against loss of part or all of a finger or other extremity. Never wear loose clothing when working around equipment with in-running nip points that cannot be guarded. Do not operate equipment from which guarding has been removed and do not remove or attempt to bypass safeguards installed by the manufacturer. Never attempt to remove impeded material from the point of operation of a machine until the power has been shut off and remaining energy sources effectively isolated or eliminated. Employers have a responsibility to conduct a hazard assessment and identify potential machine components and operations that place employees at risk of an amputation injury. In addition, they are responsible to provide employees with the necessary training and implement work practices and administrative controls that will prevent or control amputation hazards. What resources are available to assist employers? Safety and Health Programs This lockout/tagout program can be customized to fit workplace conditions and equipment. Training and Outreach Services The presentations on lockout/tagout, machinery and machine guarding and struck by/caught between can be used to assist employers to train their employees about machine guarding and related hazards. The presentations should be customized to suit the workplace hazards and conditions. In addition, the education, training and technical assistance bureau provides free online safety and health training and outreach services (i.e., speaker's bureau requests, safety booths) upon request. Further, using these pre-recorded webinars on machine guarding and lockout/tagout can be useful in training employees. Lastly, the NCDOL Library offers free safety and health videos (including streaming video services) and related research assistance on consensus standards (i.e., ANSI, NFPA, NEC). A-Z Safety and Health Topics Additional resource information can be found on the A-Z topics pages for amputations special emphasis program. abrasive wheels, lockout/tagout, machine guarding, and hand and portable powered tools. Consultation Services The consultative services bureau provides free and confidential onsite consultation regarding worksite safety and health hazards. Regulations Which standards apply? OSH has adopted the following standards which are applicable to amputations in North Carolina. Note: Please also check the standards information and activity webpage to see if there has been any recent or upcoming regulatory activity on this topic. General Industry 29 CFR 1904 Subpart C - recordkeeping forms and recording criteria 29 CFR 1904.7 - general recording criteria 29 CFR 1904 Subpart E - reporting fatality, injury and illness information to the government 29 CFR 1904.39 - reporting fatalities, hospitalizations, amputations, and losses of an eye as a result of work-related incidents to OSHA 29 CFR 1910 Subpart O - machinery and machine guarding 29 CFR 1910.212 - general requirements for all machines 29 CFR 1910.213 - woodworking machinery requirements 29 CFR 1910.215 - abrasive wheel machinery 29 CFR 1910.216 - mills and calendars in the rubber and plastics industries 29 CFR 1910.217 - mechanical power presses 29 CFR 1910.218 - forging machines 29 CFR 1910.219 - mechanical power-transmission apparatus 29 CFR 1910 Subpart P - hand and portable powered tools and other hand-held equipment 29 CFR 1910.242 - hand and portable powered tools and equipment, general 29 CFR 1910.243 - guarding of portable powered tools 29 CFR 1910.244 - other portable tools and equipment 29 CFR 1910 Subpart R - special industries 29 CFR 1910.261 - pulp, paper, and paperboard mills 29 CFR 1910.262 - textiles 29 CFR 1910.263 - bakery equipment 29 CFR 1910.264 - laundry machinery and operation 29 CFR 1910.265 - sawmills 29 CFR 1910.266 - logging operations 29 CFR 1910.268 - telecommunications Maritime - Shipyard Employment 29 CFR 1915 Subpart H - tools and related equipment 29 CFR 1915.131 - general precautions 29 CFR 1915.134 - abrasive wheels Maritime - Marine Terminals 29 CFR 1917 Subpart C - cargo handling gear and equipment 29 CFR 1917.43 - powered industrial trucks 29 CFR 1917.45 - cranes and derricks 29 CFR 1917.47 - winches 29 CFR 1917.48 - conveyors 29 CFR 1917.51 - hand tools 29 CFR 1917 Subpart G - related terminal operations and equipment 29 CFR 1917.151 - machine guarding Construction 29 CFR 1926 Subpart I - tools - hand and power 29 CFR 1926.300 - general requirements 29 CFR 1926.302 - power-operated hand tools 29 CFR 1926.303 - abrasive wheels and tools 29 CFR 1926.304 - woodworking tools 29 CFR 1926.307 - mechanical power-transmission apparatus Agriculture 29 CFR 1928 Subpart D - safety for agricultural equipment 29 CFR 1928.57 - guarding of farm field equipment, farmstead equipment, and cotton gins Other Applicable Standards The Which OSHA Standards Apply webpage can also help identify other standards that may be applicable to your worksite. Learn More Where can I learn more? Compliance Documents Operational Procedure Notice: OPN 149 - Special Emphasis Program for Amputations establishes the OSH Division's enforcement policy for safety and health inspections where employees may be exposed to amputation hazards. Compliance Directive: CPL 02-00-147, Control of Hazardous Energy, establishes enforcement policy and an explanation of the lockout/tagout standard to ensure consistent enforcement of the standard. Industry Guides Industry Guide 48 - OSHA Construction Standards Requiring Programs, Inspections, Procedures, Records and/or Training provides standards pertaining to construction. Industry Guide 49 – OSHA General Industry Standards Requiring Programs, Inspections, Procedures, Records and/or Training provides standards pertaining to general industry. Industry Guide 50 - OSHA Agriculture Standards Requiring Programs, Inspections, Procedures, Records and/or Training provides standards pertaining to agriculture. Industry Guide 53 - OSHA Shipyard Employment Standards Requiring Programs, Inspections, Procedures, Records and/or Training provides standards pertaining to shipyard employment. Industry Guide 54 - OSHA Marine Terminal Standards Requiring Programs, Inspections, Procedures, Records and/or Training provides standards pertaining to shipyard employment. Technical Assistance If you would like to receive interpretive guidance on this or any other OSH standard or topic, you can submit your questions using the Ask OSH web form, by e-mail to email@example.com or by calling 919-707-7876.