Isocyanates are a group of highly reactive, low molecular weight compounds used in the production of urethane and polyurethane compounds, respectively. Isocyanates are the raw materials that make up all polyurethane products. Jobs that may involve exposure to isocyanates include painting, foam-blowing, and the manufacture of many polyurethane products, such as chemicals, polyurethane foam, insulation materials, surface coatings, car seats, furniture, foam mattresses, under-carpet padding, packaging materials, shoes, laminated fabrics, polyurethane rubber, and adhesives, and during the thermal degradation of polyurethane products.

Unless otherwise specified, the term "isocyanate" will be used interchangeably to include diisocyanates.


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What are the hazards associated with isocyanates?

The concern with occupational exposure to isocyanates arises from the health effects, which include irritation of skin and mucous membranes, chest tightness, and difficult breathing. Isocyanates include compounds classified as potential human carcinogens and known to cause cancer in animals. However, the main effects due to hazardous exposures are occupational asthma and other lung problems, as well as irritation of the eyes, nose, throat and skin.

Is there a special emphasis program associated with this topic?

Occupational exposure to isocyanates falls within the OSH Division health hazards special emphasis program.


What can I do to protect myself?

Employees working with isocyanate-containing materials should always work in a well ventilated area and, whenever possible, use local exhaust ventilation. When this is not feasible, the employer must provide the appropriate type of respiratory protection in conjunction with an effective respiratory protection program. In addition, be sure to wear the appropriate type of gloves to prevent absorption of isocyanates into the skin.

What resources are available to assist employers?

Training and Outreach Services

The presentations on hazard communication, respiratory protection, health hazards special emphasis program and personal protective equipment are available to assist employers in training their staff. Other example presentations are available along with pre-recorded webinars which can be accessed at any time. 

In addition, the education, training and technical assistance bureau provides free online safety and health training and outreach services (i.e., speaker's bureau requests, safety booths) upon request. 

Lastly, the NCDOL Library offers free safety and health videos (including streaming video services) and related research assistance on consensus standards (i.e., ANSI, NFPA, NEC).

Safety and Health Programs

These example programs, hazard communication, respiratory protection, hazardous chemical program and PPE and hazard analysis can assist the employer in the development of their programs. Other example safety and health programs are available for employers to download and adapt to their specific conditions. 

Safety and Health Topics

Other relevant information pertaining to hazard communicationpersonal protective equipment, eyewash stations and emergency showers, chemical hazards and toxic substances and respiratory protection can be found on the applicable safety and health topics page. 

Consultation Services

The consultative services bureau provides free and confidential onsite consultation regarding worksite safety and health hazards.

Which standards apply?

OSH has adopted the following standards for occupational exposure to isocyanates in North Carolina. This is not all inclusive.

Note: Please also check the standards information and activity webpage to see if there has been any recent or upcoming regulatory activity on this topic. 

General Industry

Maritime, Shipyard Employment



Other Applicable Standards

The Which OSHA Standards Apply webpage can also help identify other standards that may be applicable to your worksite.

Where can I learn more?

Industry Guides

Compliance Documents

Technical Assistance

Inquiries about workplace safety and health requirements can be submitted to Ask OSH through the online form, by email to, or by phone at 919-707-7876.