1-Bromopropane, also known as n-propyl bromide, is an example of a class of chemical compounds known as alkyl bromides. 1-Bromopropane is used in the United States as a solvent in industrial and commercial applications and has been substituted for other solvents that have been identified as suspect human carcinogens or ozone-depleting chemicals. Among its uses, 1-bromopropane has been used as a solvent for spray adhesives, vapor degreasing, and as a substitute for perchloroethylene in dry cleaning.
How can I be exposed to 1-bromopropane?
Occupational exposure to 1-bromopropane can occur by inhalation and skin contact, although exposure through ingestion and the eyes have been observed to be other possible exposure routes.
What are the health hazards of 1-bromopropane?
Short-term exposure to the chemical can result in irritation of the eyes, nose, throat or respiratory tract. Chronic (long-term) exposure to 1-bromopropane can adversely affect peripheral nerves and the central nervous system. Symptoms that have been reported include joint pain or leg weakness and pain leading to difficulty standing and walking; muscle twitching or numbness, tingling and prickling in the hands or feet, loss of vibration sense, anxiety, apathy, insomnia, and difficulties with concentration and memory.
Other health effects that may also occur include dermatitis, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, difficulty in swallowing, disruption or failure of menstruation, urinary difficulties, anemia or low hematocrit (red blood cell count), liver damage, and lung disease.
What are the physical hazards of 1-bromopropane?
1-Bromopropane is classified as a Category 2 flammable liquid. It has an autoignition temperature of 914 degrees F and a flash point of less than 72 degrees F. Although a specific upper explosive (flammability) limit has not been determined, it has a lower explosive limit of 4.6 percent by volume in air. 1-Bromopropane decomposes when burned to emit hydrogen bromide (HBr) gas.
What can I do to protect myself?
Your employer must provide the appropriate personal protective equipment when work practices and existing engineering controls cannot prevent contact with 1-bromopropane through the skin and eyes or by inhalation.
What resources are available to assist employers?
Safety and Health Programs
Several example safety and health programs that apply to occupational exposure to 1-bromopropane can be downloaded and customized to fit the workplace. These include: hazard communication program, personal protective equipment hazard assessment, hazardous chemical program, and respiratory protection program.
Training and Outreach Services
These presentations on personal protective equipment, respiratory protection, and hazard communication can be useful in providing training to your employees. They can be downloaded and customized to fit the workplace. These pre-recorded webinars on hazard communication, respiratory protection and toxic and hazardous substances can also be accessed at any time.
In addition, the education, training and technical assistance bureau provides free online safety and health training and outreach services (i.e., speaker's bureau requests, safety booths) upon request.
Lastly, the NCDOL Library offers free safety and health videos (including streaming video services) and related research assistance on consensus standards (i.e., ANSI, NFPA, NEC).
A-Z Safety and Health Topics
Other related resources can be found on the A-Z safety and health topics pages for respiratory protection, hazard communication, eyewash stations and emergency showers and personal protective equipment.
The consultative services bureau provides free and confidential onsite consultation regarding worksite safety and health hazards.
Which standards apply?
There are no substance specific occupational safety and health standards that apply to 1-bromopropane. Note: Please also check the standards information and activity webpage to see if there has been any recent or upcoming regulatory activity on this topic.
General Duty Clause
Where workers are overexposed above the ACGIH Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 0.1 parts per million (ppm) as an 8 hour time-weighted average (TWA), the General Duty Clause (NCGS 95-129(1)) of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of North Carolina can be invoked.
Other related standards that may apply include:
- 29 CFR 1910.132 - personal protective equipment, general requirements
- 29 CFR 1910.134 - respiratory protection
- 29 CFR 1910.1200 - hazard communication
Other Applicable Standards
The Which OSHA Standards Apply webpage can help identify other standards that may be applicable to your worksite.
Where can I learn more?
- Industry Guide 49 - OSHA General Industry Standards Requiring Programs, Inspections, Procedures, Records and/or Training provides requirements for standards related to occupational exposure to 1-bromopropane in general industry.
If you would like to receive interpretive guidance on this or any other OSH standard or topic, you can submit your questions using the Ask OSH web form, by e-mail to email@example.com or by calling 919-707-7876.